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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Antinomasy - arbor,   pp. 110-128 ff. PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 111

( III)
Curiofity; for it caufed a ftrange Diforder in her, which
ceas'd upon removing of the Medicine. Ufrful. of P1?ilkf$"
Dr. Mfather relats that "1 a Gentlewoman in New-
" Enland fwoons upon feeing any one cut their Nails with
a Knife; but is not the leaft affcaed, if the fame be
" done with a Pair of Sciffars." hil. Tranfaft. No 3; 9.
The   Peripateticks account for _4ntipathies from certain
occult Qualities inherent in the Bodies. See OCCULT, PE-
TParts, &c.
Some think that the Termr Antipathy, can only be applied
to any certain purpofe, when ufed with the Refiridtion of
modern Philofophers; among whom it fignifies no more
Than a VisCentrifiuga, or repelling Power. See REPEL-
The Word is compounded of the Greek aun, contra, a-
gainfi, and m   , Fafion.
ANTIPERISTASIS, in Philofophy, the Adion of
two oppofite Qualities, one whereof by its Oppofition
excites and heightens the Force of the other. See QUA-
This Word is Greek, Av'n eecaaois; form'd of Y77, contra
againfl, and meiczpe, to hand round: q. d. Refiflence or
Renitency againil any thing that furrounds or befets an-
other.-   It is ufually defned, " the Oppofition of a con-
trary Quality, whereby the Quality it oppoies becomes
heighten'd, or intended; or the A,"'ion whereby a Body
" attack'd by another, collects ithilf, and becomes Wtronger
" by fuch Oppifition; or an In1tenfion of the Adivity of
" one Quality, by the Oppofition of another."
Thus Cold, fay the School-Philolophers, on many tic-
cafions exalts the Degree of Heat; and Drynefs that of
Moiftiure. See COLD, SC.
Thus it is that Quick-Lime is Set on fire by the Affu-
fion of cold Water: So Water becomes warmer in Winter
than in Summer, by Antiteriftafis: And to the fame Caufe
it is owing that Thunder and Lightning are excited in the
middle Region of the Air, which is continually cold.
This Antiperiftafis is a Principle of great Ufe and Ex-
tent in the Peripatetic Philofophy.-  " Tis necelaary,"
according to the Authors of that Clafs, "that Cold and
" Heat be both of them endued with a felf-invigorating
Power, which each may exert when Surrounded by its
" contrary, and thereby prevent their mutual Defirudion.
" Thus it it fuppofed that in Summer, the Cold expelled
" from the Earth and Water by the Sun's Scorching Beams,
" retires to the middle Region of the Air, and there
defends itfelf againr1t the Heat of the fuperior and in-
ferior. And thus, alfo, in Summer, when the Air a-
" bout us is fultry hot, we find that Cellars and Vaults
" have the oppofite Quality: fo in Winter, when the ex-
" ternal Air freezes the Lakes ard Rivers, the internal Air,
" in the fame Vaults and Cellars, becomes the Sanauary
" of Heat ; and Water, frefh drawn out of deeper Well
and Springs, in a cold Seafon, not only feels warm, but
" manifeftly fmokes."
Mr. Bo le has canvafs'd this Dodrine thoroughly, in hi,
Hifiory of Cold. 'Tis certain that, at priori, or con-
fidering the reafon of the thing ablraded from the Experi-
ments alledg'd. to pro e an Astipcriflar, it appears high-
ly abfurd  Since, according to the Courfe of Nature, one
Contrary ought to deflroy, not to flrengthen another: Be
fide, that it is an Axiom that natural Caaufes ad as mud
as they can; which, as to inanimate Creatures, mutt bt
allowed- phyfically demonfirative; in regard thefe ad no
by choice, but by a neceflary Impulfe.
'Tis commonly, indeed, alledg d, as a Proof of a Powe-
Nature has given Bodies of flying their Contraries, tha
Drops of Water, falling on a Table, colleff into littl
Globules, to avoid the contrary Quality in the Table, an(
keep themfelves from  being  fwallowed up by the dr,
Wood: but this we can account for on more intelligibl
Principles,viz. the Power of Attradion, and Repulfion. Se,
As to the .AntiperiJhdls of Cold and Heat, the Peripa
tetics talk of thore Qualities being furrourded by thei
Oppofites, as if each of 'em had an tnderfianding an
Forefight, that in cafe it did not gather up its Spirits, an(
guard againfi its Antagonifi, it mufi infallibly perifh i whicl
is to transform phyfical Agents into moral ones.
In effed, not only Reafon, but Experiment alfo, con
cludes againf{ the Notion of an Antiperijiafis:. The leadinl
Argument urged in behalf of it, is, the heating of quicd
Lime in cold Water: Now, who can fufficiently admir
at the Lazinefs and Credulity of Mankind, who have fi
long, and generally acquiefced in what they might fo eafill
have found to be falfe ? For if, inifead of cold Water, th
Lime be quenched with hot, the Ebullition will oftentime
be far greater than if the Liquor were cold.  See HEAT.
Again; in freezing a Bafon to a Joint-Stool with a Mix
ture of Snow and Salt, by the Fire-fide, 'tis pretended
that the Fire f{l intends the Cold, as to enable it to congeal
the Water that flagnated upon the Surface of the Stool,
betwixt that and the bottom of the Veffel. But how little
need there is of an Antiperiiafis, in this Experiment, appears
hence, that Mr. Fioyle has purpofely made it with good
fuccefs, in a place where there neither was, nor ever pro-
bably bad been, a Fire. See FIRE and FREEZING.
The Patrors of an Antiperiaf aqs ufually plead that Apho.
riflical Saying of Hippocrates, I The Vi cera are hotteh
" in Winter," in behalfof their Opinion: But the only Proof
ufually brought offuch greater Heat, is, that Men then have
a greater Appetite; fo that the Aphorifm fuppofCs Digeilion
zo be made in the Stomach by Heat, which is eafily refcll'd.
Another Argument, urged in favour ofan 4ntiperiflafis, is
borrowed from the Prod ucion of Hail, which is prefumed
to be generated in Summer only, not in Winter; and, ac-
cording to the Schools, is made in the lowel: Region of
the Air, by the Cold of the failling Drops of Rain being
fo highly intended by the Warmth they meet with in the
Air near the Earth, as to congeal into a folid form. See
the Article HAIL.
As to the refrefhing Coldnefs which fubterraneous Places
afford in Summer, it may be deny'd that they are then real-
ly colder than in Printer; tho' if the contrary were allow'd,
it would not neceifarily infer an Antiperiftqafs.-'Tis cer-
tain, the fmoaking of Waters drawn from deep places in
frofty Weather, does not necelfarily infer fuch Water to be
warmer than at other times when it does not fmoke i fince
that Effed may proceed, not from the greater Warmth of
the Water, but from the greater Coldnefs of the Air. For
a Man's Breath in Summer, or in mild Winter Weather,
becomes very vifible ; the cold ambient Air fuddenly con-
denfing the fuliginous Steams difcharged by the Lungs i
which, in warmer Weather, are readily diffufed in imper-
ceptible Particles through the Air. See the rtices WAT ER,
ANTIPERISTALTIC, in Anatom y, a Motion of the
Inteiines contrary to the RPerifialtic Motion. See PER 1-
The Perijialtic Motion is a Contracdion of the Fibres
of the Intef{ines from above, downwards; and the Anti-
periftaltic Motion is their Contradftion from below, up-
wards. See INTESTINES.
The Word is derived from the Greek cc7), againfi, me!,,
about, and m7icos, that which hath the Power of comn-
preffing. See VERMICULAR
ANTIPHONE, ANTIPHONUM, the Anfwer made by
one Choir to another, when the Pfalm or Anthem is fung
between two. See ANTHEM, CHOIR, SC.
ANTIPHRASIS, a fort of figurative Speech which has
a contrary meaning to what it carries in appearance.--Or,
a kind of Irony, wherein we fay one thing and mean the
contrary. See FIGURE and IRONY.
The Word is derived from the Greek dVn and Spoof, of
UPp&*', Ifpeak.
'Tis a common Error, to make Antiphrafes confide
in a fingle Word; as when we ray that the Parce are thus
- call'd by A-ntipbrafis, becaufe they fpare no body, Parch
- quiia lemini parcuwt.-  St. _7erom, in his Epiftie to Ri-
pariti- againli fligilantius, fays he ought rather to be cal-
- led Dorritantiris per Antiphrafn, than 1igilantius, be-
hcaure he oppofed the Chridians holding Wakes at the
Tombs of the Martyrs.
t    SanC'its, in his Minerva, p. 43 . condemns fuch Anti-
pphrafes; by reafon sPhrafis is not applicable to a fingle
r Word, but fignifies Orationem, aut l9juendi Modum. See
a That excellent Grammarian defines antiphrafis to be a
I Form of Irony, whereby we fay a thing, by denying what
we ought rather to affirm it to be: Antiphrajis efs Ironi'
e quondam forma cum dicimus negando id quod debuit airma-
e ri.-As when we fay, It did not diJpleafe me, or, He is
no Fool; rmeaning, I seas pleafed 'with it, or, Hc is a Man
- of' Senfe. On this Principle, the Antif hrafis ought to
r be ranked among the Figures of Sentences, and not thofe
I of Words. Sce FIGURE.
dIANTIPODES, or ANTICTITTIONES, in Geography, a re-
i lative Term, underflood of fuch Inhabitants of the Earth
as live diametrically oppofite to one another. See EARTH.
The Ant ipodes are thofe who live in Parallels of Latitude
g equally diflant from the Equator, the one toward the N7orth,
C the other to the South; and under the fame Meridian,
e tho Igo", or juft haif of that Meridian, dif'ant from one
) another. See PARALLEL and MERIDIAN.
The Antipodes have the fame degree of Heat and Cold;
e  the fame length of Night, and Day X but at contrary times l
s It being Midnight with one when it is Noon with the o-
ther; and the longeit Day with one, when fhortell with the
other. See HEAT, DAY, NIGHT, W
'                                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~Again,

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