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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Marasmus - measure,   pp. 498-521 PDF (21.4 MB)

Page 508

( log )
ierry'd 15b the Mafers in Chanrery. Before them; Affida-
iits are made, and Deeds and Recognizances acknow-
ledged. See CHANCERY;
MASTER PIECE, an exquifite, or extraordinary Work
or Performance, in any Art or Science.
I MASTER-PIECE, or Chef d'Oeuvre, is particularly ufed
among the Frencbf for a particular Work; which thofe who
afpire to be admitted Mailer in any Art orTrade, are
to perform in prefence of the Mailers or Jurands of that
Company, by way of Specimen of their Capacity. The
MaJier-Piece of a Melfon is a Defcent biafs'd either in
the Head or in Talut, correded by a full Arch. That
of a Carpenter, a Rartpant Curve of a Stair-Cafe, the Spi-
ral well adjufled with the Defcent. That of a Joiner, a
Plat-bottom Cheff, or a Door- Cafe, or a Mantle-Tree.
That of a Tiler, a Luthern well conducded in the Four-
ebette, with a Ridge. That of a Plumber, a little Cif-
tern a Cul de Lampe. That of a Glazier, a Pair of Com-
partiments of Glaifes of feveral ColourF, hollow'd, in-
caftrated, and join'd with Lead of Chef d'Oeuvre. That
of Paviors, a Rofe in a Free-Stone or Flint-Pavement.
that of a Cordwainer, a Turn-up Shoej Sc.
MASTIC, a clear and fweet refinous Gum, iffuing from
the Trunk and large Branches of the Ma/bic or Lentisk
Tree, either withoutj or with an Incifion. It is temperate
in Heat, and of a dry, binding Quality; fo that it
flrengthens the Stomacb, flays Vomiting, flops liTues of
Blood, and tickling Coughs and Catarrhs. It irengthens
the Reins, and Is a good Cleanfer, and is for that reafon
prefcribed in Seminal Weaknefres. The Goldfmiths mix
it with Turpentine and black Ivory, and lay it under their
Diamonds, to give them a Lufire. The Maflic is the
Produ61 of Scio. The Trees that produce it are cultivated
with as much Care as the Vines. It brings in a Revenue
of 8ccoo Ducats per Annum to the Grand Signior. There
is alfo a kind of black Magic brought from Egypr, which
ferves to fophifficate Camphor.  The  belt Mafgic is
brought from the Ifle of Chio; it is in larger Tears, and
thofe more balfamic, than that of the Levant. The Ma-
[ific produced in Cbio belongs to the Grand Signior, who
takes it of this People in lieu of the Tribute he exaas of
the other Grecian Iflands. It has its Name Magic, from
its being continually chew'd by the lTrks, efpecially the
WVom en.
MASTICATION, in Medicine, the A61ion of cbew-
ing, or of agitating the folid Parts of our Food between
the Teetb, by means of the Motion of the Jaws, the
Tongue, and the Lips; whereby it is broke into fmall
Pieces, impregnated with Saliva, and fo fitted for Deglu-
tition, and a more eafy Digeflion in the Stomach. See
The Mixture of Saliva with the Food, is of abfolute
neceffity i for the Saliva imbibed within the Parts,diffolves
the Salts hid in them; and by fo doing, prepares the Food
for Fermentation in the Stomach: The Food therefore
has the Beginning of its Digeflion from the Saliva, and its
Conclution from the Ferment in the Stomach. See SA-
MASTICATORIES, in Medicine, are fuch Remedies
as are taken in at the Mouth, and chew'd, in order to pro-
mote the Evacuation of the falival Humour; as Tobacco,
Ginger, Pepper, Sage, Rofernary, Thyme, Maflic, L)c.
MASTOIDES, in Anatomy, the fame with Mammila-
res. The Word is ufually apply'd to fuch Proceffes in the
Body, as have the Appearance of Breaifs or Dugs; ari-
fing from a broad Bafis, and terminating in an obtufe Top.
The Word is fometimes alfo apply'd to thofe Mufcles
which hoop the Head, proceeding from the Neck-Bone,
and Breafl-Bone, and terminating in the Procefs Mammi-
formi5. The Word comes from the Greek pA;-&, Nipple,
Dug, and s4&, Imago, Figure.
MATCH, a kind of Cord flightly twifled, and prepared
to receive and preferve Fire, for the Ufes of Artillery,
Mines, Fire-Works, Cc. It is made of hempen Tow,
fpun on the 'Wheel like Cord, but very flack, and is com-
pofed of three Twines or Threads, which are afterwards
again cover'd with Tow; fo that the Twines don't ap-
pear: lailly, it is boil'd in Lees of old Wines; whence its
Colour. Since Fufeeshave been introduced in lieu of Muf-
3ets, the Confumption of Match has been much lefs con-
fiderable than before.
MATERIAL, denotes Something compofed of Matter.
The Epicureans, Spinozifts, Wc. own none other but Material
Subtlances ; fee SUBSTANCE. Among Caufes, fome are
,material, others formal: See CAUSE. Material Caufes having
no Underflanding or Liberty, muff always sa in the fame
Manner, when under the fame Circumflances. The Phi-
lofophers and Divines difpute, whether or no there be any
material Forms really diflindt from Matter. See FORM.
The fralentinia7s foirmerly apply'd the Term Material to
all People; but thofe of their own Se& ; aaerting, that
their Souls periffied with their Bodies. Thus allo the
Stoics maintained that none but the Soul of their Wife-
Miie furvived the Body. See STOICKS.
MATERIALISTS, the Name of a SeSt in the an-
tient Church; compofed of Perfons, who; being prepof-
fefs'd with that Maxim in the antient Philofophy (ex Ni-
bilo Nihil fit; out 6f Nortbig Nothing can be made) had re-
courfe to an Eternal Matter, on which they fuppofled God
wrought in the Creation, inflead of admitting God alone
as the fole Caufe of the Exiflence of all Things. Tertrl-
Jian vigoroufly oppofes the Doarine of the Materiali/rs, in
his Treatife againil Hermogenes, one of theiro Number.
MATERIA SUBTILIS, a fine fubtile Matter, which
the Cartefians fuppofe to pervade and penetrate, freely, the
Parts of all Bodies, and to fill up all their Pores, fo as
not to leave the leall Vacuity or Interfilice between them.
This Machine they have recourfe to, to fupport the Doc-
trine of an abfolute Plenum, and to make it confiuent
with the Phlenomena of Motion, gèc. and accordingly make
it aa and move juft at pleafure, but in vain; for were
there any fuch Matter, in order for it to be able to fill up
the Vacuities of other Bodies, it mull, itfelf, be entirely
void of any, i. e. be perfcaly folid; fee SOLIDI TY: vail-
ly more folid than Gold, and therefore more ponderous,
and refill vailly more. See RESISTANCE. Which is in-
confiilent with Phbnomena. See VACUUM and PLENUM.
Sir If. Newtonj indeed, allows of the Exiflence of a jub-
tile Matter, or Medium, vafily finer than Air, penetrating
the clofeft Bodies, and contributing to the Produclion 4f
many of the Phamomena of Nature. The Exiflence of
fuch a Matter he argues from the Experiment of two
Thermometers, which being inclofed in Glafs Veflels,
' one of them exhautfed of its Air, and both carried from
a a cold to a warm Place, the Thermometer in vacuo grows
' warm, and rifes, almoil as foon as that in the Air i and
' if return'd into the cold Place, both cool and fall about
' the fame. Hence, fays be, is not the Heat of the warm
'Room convey'd thro the Vacuum by the Vibrations of a
'mteuh fubtiler Medium than Air, which remain'd in va-
'cuo, after the Exhauflion of the Air ? And is not this
'Medium the fame with that whereby Light is refraed
'and refleaed, and by whole Vibration, Light commit.
'nicates Heat to Bodies, and is put into Fits of eafy Re-
'flefion, and eafy Tranfmiffion ? And do not the Vibra-
'tions of that Medium in hot Bodies, contribute to the
'Intenfenefs and Duration of their Heat?  And do not
'hot Bodies communicate their Heat to contiguous cold
'ones, by the Vibration of this Medium propagated from
'them into the cold ones? And is not this Medium more
'fubtile, more elaflic and affive than Air ? Does it not
'readily pervade all Bodies? And is it not, by its elaflic
Force, expanded thro all the Heavens!' See HEAT,
COLD, Wc. Again, 'Does not the Refra6lion of Light
'proceed from the different Denfity of this Matter in dif-
ferent Places; the Light always receding from the denfer
'Parts of the Medium ' See REFRACTION.-     Again,
'Is not this Matter much rarer within the denfe Bodies
'of the Sun, Stars, Planets, Tc. than in the empty, ce-
'leflial Spaces between them? And in paffing from them
'to great Diffances, does it not grow denfer and denfer,
'and thereby occafion the Gravitation of thofe Bodies
'towards one another, and of the Parts to the Bodies ;
'every Body endeavouring to recede from the denfer Parts
'towards the rarer?' See GRAVITATION.-'AgainIs not
'Vifion performed chiefly by the Vibrations of this Matter,
'excited in the bottom of the Eye by the Rays of Light.
'and propagated thro the folid, pellucid, and uniform Ca-
'pillaments of the Optic Nerves into the Senfory ?' -A-
'gain, ' Is not animal Motion perform'd by the Vibbrations
'of this Medium, excited in the Brain by the Power of
'the Will, and propagated thence thro the folid Capilla-
'rents of the Nerves into the Mufcles, to contrad and
'dilate them?' See MEDIUM. Newt. Optic. lib. 3. in calce.
MATHEMATICS, the Science of Quantity; or a Sci-
ence that confiders Thingsas computable, or meafurable.
The Word in its Original, ßtG~ivt, fignifies Dfcipline or
Learning in the general, and feems to have been apply'd
to the Doatrine of Quantity, either by way of Eminence,
or by reafon this having the Start of all other Sciences, the
rell took their common Name therefrom. See SCIENCE.
For the Origin of MATHEMATICS, 'lofepbus dates it
before the Flood, and makes the Sons of Seth Obfervers
of the Courfe and Order of the Heavenly Bodies; he
adds, that to perpetuate their Difcoveries, and fecure 'em
from the Injuries either of a Deluge or a Conflagration,
they had them engraven on two Pillars, the one of Stone,
the other of Brick; the former of which, he fays, was
flanding in Syria in his days.

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