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Jonstonus, Joannes, 1603-1675 / A description of the nature of four-footed beasts : with their figures engraven in brass
(1678)

Chapter II. Of tortoyses in speciall,   pp. 109-111


Page 109


                 OF THE FOU1RF
                 CHAPTER              II.
              Of Tortoyfes in fpecial/,
                 ARTICLE              I.
              Of the Land-Tortoy4e.
Amnbrof.       He Land-Tortoys is called by fome
Ovip.        the hill,wood,field,wild-one-;in Greek
1.2 C.2.  _ _  herfaian, &c. It is as the Salmander
Nainc.         markt with yellow, and black fpots
       on the back, flhelled like the fea-one. The un-
  D~cri  der-{hlell of the female is plain, but of the male
       hollow,and heavier; under the under-fihlls are
Sdvcrin. two moving mufcles afore, on each fide one,
z~o.   either feems double, the greater outward, the
Deiocr. leffe inward; both rifing lIdeling as out of the
       arm-pits, fpringing from a thin skin clinging to
       the Ihell, and ending in a iharp tendon; under
       there long, round mnufcles fix other appeares
       long that haply bend the arms. Two come to
       the thighs fprouting fiom theforefaid mnem-
       brane, thefe are leffe then the former.but more
       fleihy, and are fet into the thighs. The back-
       bone is compa6t, and fattened fUrongly to the
       fhell, in the middle of the length. Below the
       head in the midft a fingers breath from the
       fides defcend two mufcles, plucking the hlead
       inward, and two other a little below, all long.
       The liver is parted but alike big on the right,
       and left fide, withoutbunched,within hollow,
       on the right fide craggy containing in a ftrange
       workianflip the nether mouth of the fto-
       mack, and a part of lhe duodenum;theleft fide
       holding the greater hollow of the ftomack,
       like a hollow eybrow. The gall- ba g lies deep
       in the right firing of the liver. The flomack
       nearly refembles a mans, or fwines; but after it
       comes to the bowells it hath three large hol-
       lows,wherein are perfe6ted the three dige-
       ftions. In the two firft is a herby fubftance,the
       latter better wrought, and from hence cleaves
       the milt round, and black; in the third a cer-
       tain moyffifli, and very wvhite fuilbance, like a
       chewed chefniut, but waflby. It is thou ght this I
       ferves for a bladder, that,as Hens ufe, darts out
       fometimes a white moyfcure. It is large, and
       fhaped like a chefbut, thil), and of a large con-
       veyance. It clings fail to the peritonaeum.The
       firaiglht out at the end hath fuch fide paffages,
       as all Cocks have,but parted,and reaching into
       the fides, even to the reins. Here on each fide
       ly their egges. The mid-rif is interwoaven with
       great veins. The heart is roundifih,and whitilh,
       hollow on one corner,placed juflcabove the
       liver. The lharp artery (which is worthy mar-
       king) a little after the beginning is cloven, and
       the branches are twifled. The lungs above
       cling to the back-bone, thin, not flefly, but ra-
       ther skinny, fet into the fharp artery, like a
       blackilh net-worke. The difpofition of the
       Hyois.bone,and flield-grifile is remarkable.In
       the skull of the Sea-tortoyfe is a partition.
       Thefe come about in the deferts of Africaand
?Iace. in fome part of Lybia. Alfo in the Arcadian
OOTED             3E ASTS.            I09
woods, they of old made harps of them. TThey Plin.
are molt in the Ile Diofcoris in the red.fea.
Living in the deferts they have been thought Arcad.
to feed on dew. Others fay they crop young Foodl
fprouts of pot-herbs, and Pompions, &c. Bruier.
Worms alfo they eat, and fhell-filh. In houfe
they kept with bran, and meal. To paffe by
fables , of their becing gendred of Geranus a
woman turned into a Crane, and Nicodamas.
They lay hard flelled , and party-coloured
egges , which they hide in the ground, and at
times fit on, and the following year they fofter
them. It is a miftake that they conceive only Anting.
when the wind blows. It is certainer, that hie Diprof-
female being very flow to coupling is of the 14.
                                          Nicander.'
male quickned by an herb. The Greeks eat iElian.
thelm not. Certain Hungarians feeing Clufius L s- c.32.
taft of one, beleeved he ihould dy of it. In Ufeiod
India they are commonly eaten. In Auguft, Bellon.
and September, when corn is ripe, they are
fatteflt, and moft cried up. Some fay, from Fe-
bruary to May the Shees are bell, being then
full of egges, and from June to Autumne,the
Hces. Some praife them with garlick fauce. Amnbrofin.
At this day at Bononia they behead the female
land.Crocodile, and throw away the blood,
and feeth it till the flell fall from the flefh, and
watl the inward,and boyl all together with
faffran, fweet fpices, pines,and raifins in Maim-
fy, and fo ferve it in.
  The flelh makes good perfumes againft in PiSz
witchcraft, and poyfon. In Africa they cut off lick-
the head , and feet, and make an antidote of
them.  In pottage eaten they difperfe fwel.
li ngs, and help the falling ficknefk, and fpleen;
the blood clears the ey-fight, and removes
blood-fhiot , redne1Ie in the eyes , and helps
again t all venome of ferpents, fpiders, toads,
the blood wrought with meal into pilles, and
take in wine ; the gall with Athenian bony is
good for the yellow inthe eyes, and the ftroak
of a fcorpion; the alies of the lhell kneaded
with wineand olyl,clofes chaps,and ulcers.The
fcales fhaven off at top in drinke allay, as the
the powder of the fhell inflames lufc. The
urine I thinke is not feen but in diledtion, but
is thought good againic afpick-bites, better, if
mixt with hog-lice; the egges hardened make
an ointment for fwellings,and ulcers comming
from cold, or burnes. Some fwallow them in
fIomack-aches.
  Among the Bononians there is fyroop of
Tortoyfes for fhort-breath,and confumptions.
Some alfo made a decoction for rheums, and
cough, defcribed by Amatus the Portugees.
Wecker compounds an ele6tuary againfl
flarp uds of feed. Galen ftampt the liver to
drink for the fuffocations of the mother.
  In India are great ones.They pluck off their
fhells with fpades,they have fat,and fweet flefl . rences.
In Brafil is one called Jubeti, by the Portugees lian,
Cagado de terra;it hath a black Ihell with many
fix cornered marks thereon, fiowted as others. Marck%;
The head, and legs dusk, but fhadowed, and Brafil,
fpotted. The liver hath a more favoury tafl,
thenof any other beaft,
                 l  3       A RTICLt


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