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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

U[/V] - venter,   pp. 273-292 PDF (20.2 MB)

Page 273

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TH E twentieth Letter In the Alphabet,
and the fifth Vowel. See LETTER, and
U          ,g  ^  VOWEL.
Befides the Vowel U, there is a Con-
fonant of the fame Denomination, wrote
The Pronunciation of the U, as now ufed among the En-
glto, French, &c. is borrow'd from the antient Gauld jb
for all the other Wefiern People, with the Romans, pro-
nounce it oU.
V is alfo a Numeral Letter, and fignifies five; accord-
ing to the Verfe,
V, Vero quinque dabit tibi, Ji retle numerahis.
When a Dafh was added a-top, V, it fignified 50ooo.
V. R. among the Romans, flood for Uti Rogas, as you
defire: which was the Mark of a Vote, or Suffrage for
the palling of a Law. See ROGATIO; fee alfo A.
VACANCY, or VACUUM, in Philofophy, an empty In-
terval, or Space void of Matter. See ViCUUM.
VACANCY, in Law, Eec. a Pofl or Benefice wanting a re-
gular Officer, or Incumbent. See OFFICER, Wc.
The Canoniffs hold, that the Kind of Vacancy is to be
exprefs'd in the Impetration of a Benefice. See BENEFICE.
A Future Vacancy, or Voidance of a Spiritual Living,
fome Writers call Vacatura.
IDevolution is a Species of Canonical Vacancy. See DE-
VACANT Effefis, 'Prdedia Vacua, are fuch as are aban-
don'd for want of an Heir, after the Death or Flight of
their former Owner. See RESIGNATION, EC.
In our Law-Books, Vagantes Terra, for Vacantes, ex-
preftes forfaken or uncultivated Lands.
A Benefice is faid to be vacant, in Curia Romana, when
the Incumbent dies in Rome, or within 2o Leagues thereof,
tho it be only by Accident that he was there.
The Pope nominates to all Benefices vacant in Curia Ro-
mana; excepting thofe of the neighbouring Bilhopricks.
VACATION, Non-Term, in Law, is all the Time, re-
fpecively, included between the End of every Term, and
the Beginning of the next Succeeding one. See TERM, and
This Intermilfion was call'd by our Anceffors Pax Dei,
End Ecclef; and Sometimes the f2mes or Days of the
King's Peace.
Among the Romans, it was call'd Yuftitium, or Feriae,
or fDies NefaJfi. See DAY; fee alfo FASTUS.
The Time from the Death of a Bifhop, or other Spiri-
tual Perfon, till the Bifhoprick or other Dignity be fupplied
by another, is alfo call'd Vacation. See PLENARY.
Cicero, in his Orations, mentions a Law, whereby the
Priefs were exempted from Service in all Wars, except only
Uproars and Civil Tumults; which Exemptions he calls
VACUUM, VACUITY, in Phyficks, a Space empty, or
devoid of all Matter, or Body. See SPACE, and MATTER.
Whether there be any fuch Thing in Nature as an abfo-
lute Vacuum; or whether the Univerfe be completely full,
and there be an abfolute Plenum; is a thing has been con-
troverted by the Philofophers of all Ages. See PLENUM.
The Antients, in their Controverfies, diflinguifh two Kinds;
a Vacuum Coacervatum, and a Vacuum Interfperfum, or
acuum Coacervatum is conceiv'd as a Place deflitute of
Matter: Such, e.g. as there would be, fhould God annihi-
late all the Air and other Bodies within the Walls of this
The Exiflence of fuch a Vacuum is maintain'd by the
Tythagorens, EpicureanS, and the  Atomifts, or Corppufcu-
larias, moft of: whom aftert fuch a Vacuum actually to
exil with-out the Limits of the fenfible World. But the
modern Corpufcularians, who hold a Vacuum Coacervatum,
deny that Application; as conceiving, that fuch a Vacuum
smub be Infinite, Eternal, and Uncreated. See UNIVERSE.
K   According, then, to the later Philofophers, there is no
Vacuum Coacervatum with-out the Bounds of the .fenfible
World; nor would there be any Vacuum, provided God
jhould annihilate divers contiguous Bodies, than what a-
hiotihts to a there Privation, %r Nothing: The t eirn~nidns
of fuch a Space, which the Antients held to be real, being
by thefe held to be mere Negations3 that is, in fuch a Placei
there is fo much Length, Breadth, and Depth'wanting, as
a Body muft have to fill it. To fuppofe, that when all tho
Matter in a Chamber is annihilated, there Ihould yet be real
Dimenfions; is to fuppofe Corporeal Dimenfions without
Body, which is abfurd.
The Cartefians, however, deny any Vacuum Coacervatamh
at all ; and affertj that if God Ihould immediately annihilate
all the Matter, v.g. in this Chamber, and prevent the Ingrefs
of any other Matter, the Confequence would be, that the
Walls would become contiguous, and include no Space at all.
They add, that if there Be no Matter in a Chamber, the
Walls can be conceiv'd no otherwise than as contiguous; thof
Things being faid to be contiguous, between which there
is not any thing intermediate: But, if there be no Body be-
tween, there is no Extenfion between; Extenfion and Body
being the fame thing: and if there be no Extenfion be-
tween, then the Walls are, contiguous, and where's the Va-
chum ?
But the Reafoning is built on a Miflake, viz. that BodY
and Extenfion are the fame thing. See ExTENsIoN, ana
Vacuum Diffeminatum, or Interfperfum, is that fuppos'd
to be naturally interfpers'd in, and among, Bodies, in the
Pores of the fame Body, and in the Interitices between dif-
ferent Bodies. See PoRE.
'Tis this kind of Vacuum which is chiefly difputed among
the modern Philofophers: The Corpufcularians firenuoufly
afrerting it; and the Peripateticks and Carteftans as ftiffly
impugning it. See CORPUSCULAR, CARTESIAN, 19C.
The great Argument the 'Peripateticks urge againft a Va-
cusm Interfperfam, is, that there are divers Bodies frequently
feen to move contrary to their own Nature and Inclination;
and for no other apparent Reafon, but to avoid a Vacuum:
whence they conclude, that Nature abhors a Vacuum; and
give us a new Clafs of Motions afcrib'd to the Fuga: Vacaii
or Nature's flying a Vacuum. See FUGA.
Such is the Rife of Water in a Syringe, upon drawing up
the Piflon; fuch alfo is the Afcent of Water in Pumps, the
Swelling of the Flefh in a Cupping-Glafs, Wtc.
But fince the Weight, Elaficiry, "c. of the Air, have
been afcertain'd by fure Experiments; thofe Motions and
EffeSs are univerfally afcrib'd to the Gravity, and Pref:ure
of the Atmofphere. See AIR; fee alfo SYRINGE, PUMP,
CUPPING-Glafs, &c.
The Cartefians deny not only the Aqual Exiflence, but
even the Poffibility of a Vacuum: and that on this Prin.
ciple, That Extenfion being the Effence of Matter, or Body,
wherever Extenfion is, there is Matter: But mere Space.
or Vacuity, is fuppos'd to be extended; therefore it is ma-
terial. Whoever denies an empty Space, conceives Dimen-
ifons in that Space, i. e. conceives an extended Subfiance
in it; and therefore admits a Vacuum, at the fame time
that he admits it.
On the other hand, the Corpufculae-Authors prove, not
only the Poffibility, but the Actual Exiflence of a Vacuum,
from divers Confiderations ; particularly, fiom the Confide-
ration of Motion, in general i and that of the Planets, Co-
mets, &c. in particular; from the Fall of Bodies ; from
the Vibration of Pendulums j from Rarefa~iion and Con-
denfation ; from the differentipeciflc Gravities of' Bodies;
and from the fDiviibizlity of Matter into Parts.
IQ. 'Tis argued, that Motion could not be efefed with-
out a Vacuum. See MOTION.
This is what Lucretius urg'd long ago,-Principivm quo.
niam cedendi nulla daret res-undique materies quoniam
flipata fuifet.
The Force of this Argument will be Increas'd from the
two following Confiderations, viz. firil, that all Motion is
either in a flrait Line; or in a Curve, which returns into it
felf, as the Circle, and Ellipfis; or in a Curve that dos  ot
return into it felf, as the Parabola, Efc. And, fecondly that
the moving Force mufd always be greater than   Re a
For, hence it follows, that no Force, even tho InGfiite, tan
produce Motion where the Refifatice is infinite; conf-
quently, there can be no Motion either in a firiti Lie, or a
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