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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

S - sapping,   pp. 1-20 PDF (18.7 MB)

Page 1

'A Confonant, and the Eighteenth Letter ot
the Alphabet. 'Tis accounted one of the four
hiffin Conlbnantsz the other three being Z,
J. and    Ch.     'Tis alfo held a Semi.vowel,
as forming a kind of imperfea Sound without
the Afluflance of any Vowel. Some of the Ancients a-
voided all Ufe of the S very fludioufly; particularly
!pindar, who fcarce has it once in all his Verfes. And
hence alfo in 'Plautus, and fome others of the Latin Po.
et, we find it cut abruptly off, as in di-gnu', omnibu',
&c. Others, on the contrary, affeaed the Ufe of it every
where, inserting it where 'twas not wanted; as Cafmene for
Camnente, dufmofe for dumofe, cefna for cena, &c. Of
all others, 'tis the neareff a-kin to the r; whence it was
frequently changed, by reafon of its disagreeable Sound,
into r. Thus the Valerii, Furii, &c. were at firfi call'd
Talefii, FTqii, &c. and what we now call ara, arena, car-
men, ferie, lares, &c. were anciently wrote afa, afena,
cafmen, fesie, lafes. Add to this, that the Latin Nouns
now terminated in or, as arbor, labor, &c. anciently end-
ed in s, as arbos, labos, &c. In the Infleffions, 'tis va-
rioully changed: Sometimes into rs, as flis, floris, fome-
times into n, as fanguis fanguinis, fomerimes into d, as
tes p5edis; Sometimes into t, as Nepos Nepotis. On the
contrary, in Verb, 'tis frequently put for other Letters,
for b, as in jubeo jusfi; for c, as in parco parsi; for a,
as in ludo lusi; forg, as infpargofparsi, &c. The La-
tins frequently changed the Greek s into 1, as Apvss
Annibal; into d, as Issaap medium, &c. The double s
was frequently changed into x, as iwiac Pix; and fome-
times even the fingle one, as VAm;a Aiax. The old and the
new Orthography of the French, differ chiefly on the Ufe
of the s; the latter omitting it in writing where 'tis not
heard in the Pronunciation, and the former retaining it;
thus the Followers of the one, particularly  the Academy
in their Diclionary, write tempe/7e, huiftre, flujte; thofe
of the other, temptee, huttre, flute, &c.
The S was a Numerical Letter among the Ancients,
fignifying Seven: according to the Verfe,
S Verefeptenos numeratosfignifiabit.
In Books of Navigation, &c. S. fignifies South, S. E.
Soluth.-Eaf, S. W. South-WeJt, S. S. E. South South-Eafl,
&c. See WIND. S. A. is frequently ufed in Medicinal
Prefcription as an Abbrevation of Secendum Artem, Accor.
ding to the Rules of Art. Sometimes it alfo flands for
Socius, Fellow, Member, and fometimes for Societas, as
R. S. S. Regie Sccietatis Socius, Fellow of the Royal
SABAEANS, a Sea of Idolaters, much ancienter than
Mofes and the Jewifti Law, call'd alfo Sabians, Sabaites,
Zabeans, Yl'abteans, &c. See SABAISM. The Saratns
were very numerous throughout the Eaft. In later Times
they have mixed fomething of Chriflianity with their Su-
perlition. Trhey fet a great Value on the Baptifm of St.
john; whence they have been alfo denominated Chri-
ftians of St. John. Some, indeed, doubt whether the Sa-
bFans be the fame with the Chriffians of St. 7ohn; but
Father Angelo de St. Jofeph, a Carmelite Miffionary, and
.Maraci, in his Notes on the Alcoran, affert it exprefly.
Be this as it will, Aahomet, in his Alcoran, and the  lra-
bian Authors fince him, make frequent mention of them.
'Beidavius, in his Comment on the .Alcoran, makes them
a kind of Mean between the Chriflians and the Magu-
fians, who are the Followers of the Magi, among the Per-
fians. He adds, That they pretend to be of the Religion
of Noah, and Keifteus: That they pretend to be in Poffefli-
on of the Books of Seth and Enoch; though they own
none of the Books of Scripture.   Some charge them
with worihipping the Stars, and others the Angels, 'or
!emons. Maimonides attributes both to them; as is
obferved under the Article Sabaifm.
4bu JofephAfcheus, and Keffoeus place the Sabeans about
COharan, or Charres, and Ghezira in Mefopotamia ; which Opi-
nion is confirmed by this that their Books are in the Chaldee
Tongue, tho' in a Chara&er very different from the Chat-
dee. Hottinger fets afide the common Derivation of Sa-
beAn from nAd Militia, Hoft; and will not have it the
Name of a Se& of Religion, but of a People in Arabia
Felix, the Defcendants of Saba, Grand-fon of Cham. But
the Criticks, to a Man, cenfpire againrf this Opinion.
SABAISM, a Kind of Idolatry very ancient; the firft
that ever entered into the World. Sabaifm confifled
in the Worfhip and Adoration of the Stars, as the Scrip-
tuan      =5T N= BOX         &ha maim, or     sfo SbaQ
5A t-
maiomi Iloft or Militia of the Heavens;  whence  i;Ad
of the Moderns have formed the Word Sabaijim for the
Worffiip of the, heavenly Bodies, and Sabeans for the
Worfhippers. But as the Hebrew Word, whence thefe are
form'd, is wrote with a y  Yzade, which fome exprefs in
the modern Tongues by an s, fome by a z, others by ts,
and others by tz; hence arifes a great many diferent
Manners of writing the Word, among different Authors.
Some writing it Sabeans; others Zabiens, or Zabeans,
or Zabci fs, as Buxtorf; others Tfabiaws, and others
rfabeavs. hMaimonides  makes frequent mention of
this Idolatry in his More Nebuihiv: 'twas very gene.,
ral, he obferves, in the Time of Mofes. The Re-
tainers hereto taught, That God was the Spirit of the
Sphere, that is the Soul of the World; Abraham, he adds,
was brought up in the Doarine of the SabAans, who
admitted no other Gods but the Stars, and who in their
Books, many of which have been tranflated ihto Arabic?
maintain exprefly, That the fixed Stars and Planets, are
inferior Gods, and the Sun and Moon the fuperior ones.
Abraham  at length, he tells us, oppofing thefe Errors,
firfi afferted the Exiflence of a Creator di ilind from the
Sun. The King of the Cuaheans clapt him up in Prifon;
but he fill perfifling, that Prince, from an Apprehenfionr
of his diffurbing the State by teaching a new Religion;
confifcated his Goods, and baniffied him to the Extre-
mities of the Eafi. This Relation, he tells us, is found
in a Book intitled, n to.)rn  VlVfn, T~e Religion of the
Nabathxans. And adds further, That the Saberans, to the
Adoration of the Stars, joined a great Refpe& for Agri-
culture; fet a great Value on Cattle and Sheep; and
taught, That it was unlawful to kill them. He even adds,
That they worlhipp'd Oemons, under the Form of Goats,
and eat the Blood of Animals, (tho' they judged it un-
clean,) merely becaufe they imagined it was the Food
of Dl~emons. This is an Abridgment of what that Rabbin
gives us of Sabaifm; from whence, 'tis eafy judging of
what fome People tell us, that Sabaifim is a Mixture of
7udaifm, Chrifjianity, Mahomeranizm, and Paganirz.
The Truth is, The Worfhip of the Stars was efLablifhed
long before not only Chriflianity, but even before the
Law of Mofes. Indeed fome of the latter Sabeans have
given into fome Articles of almoft all Religions. See
SABATHIANS, a Se6 of Hereticks thus called from
Sabathins, their Leader, who lived under EiocleZan, was
firfi a .7e-w, then converted, and made a Priefd by Mar-.
cian; but afterwards left the Sea of Marcianites, on
Account of the Celebration of Eafter, which he would
have on the Fourteenth Day of the Moon; whence
he, and his Adherents were called knartodecimans:
Which fee.  The S tathians are recorded  by  Eccle-
fiaflical Hifforians, as having a great Abhorrence of the
Left hand; Jo as to make it a IPoint of Religion, not to
receive any Thing therewith. This Cuflom, which is
now become a Piece of Manners among us, was then
effeemed fo fingular, that the Sabathians were thence de-
nominated Ariferi, q. ii. Sini~fri, left-handed.
SABBATARIANS, a Sea of Anabaptifis, in tho
XVIth Century; thus called, becaufe they held the 7e'w-
zj7 or Saturday.Sabbath; from a Perfuafion that it was
never abrogated in the New Teflament by, the Inftituti-
on of any other. See ANABAP'rIsT.
SABBATH, the Seventh Day of the Week, held as a
Feafl among the 7ews, in Memory of God's refling on the
Seventh Day of the Creation. See WEEK. The Word is
pure lebreiv, and fignifies Ceffation or Reft. Philo calls it,
Tv xosl.As 7'sv4soiv, The World s Birth-day. 'Twas appoint-
ed from the Beginning by God himfelf, Gen. ii. 2, 3.
and by him fet apart for the Commemoration of the great
Work of the Creation; and when it had fallen into Ne-
gle&' after the Flood, was re.eflablifhed by him, upon his
fettling the 7etsi  Polity after the Return out of Egypt
The Chrifhians alfo apply it, by Extenifon, to the firet
Day of the Week, popularly called Stunday, or Lord's-
Vay; as inflituted ty the Apofsles to take Place of the
lewi  Sabbath, and by us obferved in Remembrance, not
of the Creation, but of the Work of. Redemption, be.
ing compleated by our Saviour's Refurreaion on that Day.
The M7ews had alto their Sabatick.rear, which was every
Seventh Year; Wherein they were obliged to fet their
Slaves at Liberty, and to let their Lands lie idle.
Thofe who difpute the Divine Appointment of a Chri-
flian Sabbath, yet allow the Moral Neceflity thereof 2s a
vile Defignation of Time for the recruiting of our Bodies,
and at the fame Timi, keeping up a Senfe of the great
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