University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Returno - root,   pp. 1011-1030 PDF (18.3 MB)

Page 1011

( C~ :
lXte delivered unto him that was diftrain'd, upon Security given
to profecute the Adion, {hall now be retirned to him that di-
trained them. See DISTRESS, REPLEVY,- &C.
RETURNS are alfo certain Days in each Term, peculiarly fit
*-Dart for the feveral Kinds of Proceedings, in any Caude to be
determined. See TERM, 6a.
They are alfo call'd Days M Bank. See DAT.
ibillay Term has four fuch Returns.-viz. O7aaik Hillarii,
eight Days after Hillary Day; 2. Uvena Higsrii, fifteen Days ;'
ra/ina Purifiationis, the gay after the Purification; and Odabis
Purificationis, eight Days after, inclufive.
Eajier Term hs five Returns; viz. fuindena Pafche, fifteen
Days after Eafler; Tures Pafchx, three Weeks after; Menfe Faf-
che, the Day-Month after Eafter; ,2uinque Pafhwe, the Day five
Weeks from tafter; and Craftino Afcenfionis Domini, the Day af-
ter A4fcenfon-Day.
Trinity Term has fbur Returns; viz. Crajlino rinitatis, the
Pay after Yrinity; Olabis Trinitatis, eight Days after, inclufive;
2 indena Trinitatis, fifteen Days after; and Tres Trinitatir, three
Weeks after,
Michaelmas Term has fixt Returns; viz. Tlrs Michaelri three
Weeks after Michaelmas, Menfe Michaelis, the Day-Month after
Michaelmas; Crajfino Aeimarum, the Day after AllSoul; Crafti-
. o Martini, the Day after Martinmas Day; Ol7abir Martini, eight
Days after, inclusive; and uindena Martini, fifteen Days.  See
RETURN, in Building. A Side or Part that falls away from the
Forefide of any ftraight Work, is call'd the Return..
RETURNS of a Trench, in Fortification, are the turnings and
windings which run from    the Lines of a Trench.    See
RETURNO habendo, or RETURNUM         Averiorum, a Writ
which lies for him who has avow'd a Diftrefs made of Cattle,
and proved his Diffrefs to be lawfully taken; forl the Return of
the Cattle diftrain d unto him, which before were replevied by
the Party diftrain'd, upon Surety given to purfue the Action. See
The fame Writ is granted when the Plaint or A6tion is remo-
ved by Recordare, or Aicedas ad Curiam, into the Court of Corn-
mon-Pleas; and he whofe Cattle were diftrain'd, makes Default,
and does not prosecute his Adtion. See
RETURNUM       Irreplegiabile, a Writ Judicial, fent out of the
Common-Pleas to the Sheriff, for the final Reftitution or Re-
turn of Cattle ta the Owner, unjuffly diftrain'd as Damnage-tea-
zant, and fo found by the Jury before Juftices of Aflize in the
County, or otherwife, through Default of Profecution.  See
REVE, or GREVE, in antient Cufltoms, the Bailiff of a Fran-
chife or Manor; thus call'd, especially in the Weftern Parts. See
Hence Sbir-reve, SherifF, Port-greve, Church-reve, &c.  See
REvE is alfo ufid in antient Cuftoms for a Duty or Impofiti-
on On Merchandices imported or exported.   See DUTY and
M. du Cange derives the Word from the Latin, rogare, to ask;
as being a Tribute anciently granted Princes at their Requeft, as
a Free-Gift.
REVEILLE, a Beat of the Drum, intended to give Notice
,that it is Day-break; and that the Soldiers are to rife, and the
Centries forbear challenging. See DRUM.
The Word is French, form'd of the Verb reveiller, to a-
REVELATION, the Aft of revealing, or making a thing
publick which before was a fecret, or unknown.
The Revelation of a Confeffion made by the Confeffor, is ad-
judg'd in the Romib Church, to deferve the moft exemplary Pu-
nilliment. See CONFESSION.
The Word Revelation is ufed, by way of Eminence, for the
Difcoveries made by God to his Prophets, &c. and by them to
the World. See PROPHECY.
The Romanmifs have two huge Volumes of the Revelations of
St. Bridget. See LEGEND, VISION, e-c.
The Word is form'd from the Latin, revele, of re and velum,
q. d. unvail.
. REVELATION, in Religion, is the Difcovery which God has
made to the World by the Mouths of his Prophets; of certain
Points of Faith and Duty, which they could not learn from natu-
ral Reafon See NATURE, REASON, FAITH, e&c.
Religion is divided into natural Religion; and Revelation, or
revealed Religion. See RELIGION.
The Chriftian Revelation is that made byChrift, and his Apo-
'lles, in the New Teflament. See TESTAMENT.
The Jewi/b Revelation is that made by Mofes and the Pro-
phefs, in the Old Teftament. See BIBLE, PROPHET, &c.
A late Author obferves, fornewhat invidioufly, that 'tis the
common Method of all new Revelations, to be built on Prece-
dent ones.-Thus, the Mifflion of Mo/es to theIfraeliter, fuppofes
a former Revelation to Abraham, &c. The Million of Chrift
fuppofes that of Mof t; and the pretended Miflion of Mabomet,
luppofes the Miffion of Chrift. The Million of Zoroafler to
the Perfians, fuppofes the Religion of the Magi, &c.
The general Foundation of all Revelatian is this, That God
i is pleated Man fhould know fornething relating to hbirtlf, lhis
own Nature, Difpenfatioa, &c. which the natural Faculties he
was pleafed to create him withal, could not attain to; and that
be requires fome Duty or Service at our Hands, more than wha'
neceffarily follows from the Relation we are under to him as our
Creator, Preferver, e&c.
Particular or occalional Revelations have their particular Geti-
us's, Charaaterifticks, and Defigns.-That made by Mo/es and
the Prophets, chiefly related to the Nation of the Jewr, confi.
dered as the Defcendants of Abraham : Its Defign feers to have
been to refcue that People from their Slavery; to fettle them a
a new Plantation; to give them a fet of Laws; to new form
their Manners; to fupport them under Difficulties and Dangers
of their Enemies, from an Opinion of their being under the im-
mediate DireCtion and Appointment of God; to keep them from
intermixing again with their Neighbours, from an Opinion of
their being a chofen People, and of a Meflialh to be born among
them; and to lay a Foundation of a Refloration, in cafe of their
being opprefs'd, from the Opinion of a Deliverer.-To fome or
other of thefeEnds do all theOld Teftament Prophefies feem to
The Chriflian Revelation is founded on a Part of the Yewifh.
-The Meffiah promis'd in the one, is reveaPd in the other.
All the reft of the .7ewiws Revelation, which related peculiarly to
the Tewig People, is here fet a-fide; and only that Part of it
which was to affeit the World in general, we mean that relating
to the coming of the Mefliah, is here built upon.  See MES-
Indeed it muft be own'd the yews ever look'd on this Part as
peculiar to themfelves, as any of the reft: The Mefliab was pro-
mifed to therm; he was to be their Deliverer, their Reftorer, &e.
-But upon the taking Place of this new Revelation, a new Scene
was opened-This Part of the old Revelation, it was fhewn, was
all Typical, or Allegorical; and the Prophefies relating hereto,
not to be underftood in their primary or litteral Senfe.  The
Meffiah was not to be the Reftorer of the Yewi/h Sovereignty
and Liberties, which were now fallen into the Hands of the Ro.
mans, but to reftore and re-eftabliflh the World, who had lofl
their original Righteoufnefs, and were become Slaves of Sin; to
preach Repentance and Remiffion, and at lafi to fuffer Death,
that all who believ'd in him, might not die, but have everlafting
Such is the Tenor and Defign of the ChriPrian Reveation,
which in the Event, was fo far from being what it had been ap-
prehended to be, by the People to whom it was firft promisd;
that it proved the very Reverfe; and inftead of re-eftabliflhing
andconfirming the other Branches of their Revelation, fuperreded,
and fet them all afide.-The Pale was now broken down, and the
being of the Seed of Abrabam, ceas'd to be a Privilege; all the
World being invited on the fame Terms with the yews.
The Confequence was, that the 7e'w denying this to be the
Meffiah that had been promifed to them, as not able to fee the
Prophecies fulfilled in him, for want of the typical Meanings there-
of, were generally excluded from the Priviledges of that Million
which had been fuppofed wholly intended for them; And had
their Ruin compleated from the very means whence they expe~t-
ed their Redemption. See TYPE, PROPHESY, &pc'
REVELS, Entertainments of Dancing, Masking, Gaming,
Awing of, Comedies, Farces, &c. antiently very frequent in Inns
of Courts, at certain Seafons., and in Noblemen's, &c. but now
much difufed.
The Officer who has the Diredtion or ordering hereof, was
called the Mailer of the Revels.
The Word is form'd from the French, reveiller, to awake.
REVENUE, the yearly Rent or Profits arifing to a Man from
his Lands, PoIeflions, &c. See RENT.
The Revenue of this Manor confifis in Tiths, Rents, &c. See
The Revenues of the Exg4/h Clergy were firft fix'd by King
Ethelwolf, Anno 855; who granted them  for ever, the Tith of
all Goods, and the tenth Part of all the Lands of England, free
from    all Secular Service, Taxes, Impofitions,  -c.  See
The certain Revenues of the King of England were antiently
greater than thofe of any King in Europe; and 'till the time of
the Civil Wars they enjoy'd in Domains andFee-Farm Rents al-
molt enough to Difcharge all the ordinary Expences of the Crown,
without any Tax or Impofition on the Subje&.
Upon the Reftauration, the Crown Revenues being found
much alienated, and the Crown Charges increas'd; the Parlia-
ment fettled a yearly Revenue of 1,200000 1. upon the King;
fo much as the former Crown Revenues fell fhort of that Sum,
to be rais'd on Goods exported and imported, upon Liquors, and
Fire-Hearths. See DUTY, &C.
At the Death of King Charles II. the Revenue amounted to
i,8oo,2oo 1. per Ann.-In King James Ids. Time, it was raised
to 2,000,000o. which was computed to be one tenth of the
Revenues of the whole Kingdom.
At the fame time the Revenues of the King of Frae were
computed at feven Millionis Sterling; and thofe of the States of
xI A                           OAled

Go up to Top of Page