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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Proprietor - pyxis,   pp. 899-922 PDF (22.3 MB)

Page 899

~~~ R
ro peftas of the "Prerorium under &raiiai, in the City
f Rowe and the neighbouring parts. See PitE TORIUM.
PROPRIETOR, or PROPRIETARY, he who has the
Property or Propriety of any thing. SeePPROPERTY.
PROPRIETOR, in Law, is flrialy, fuch a one as has, or
poftieles any thing in the utmoll degree: .Qjee nullius ar-
1jitrio eft obnoxia.
The Term   was formerly apply'd in a particular manner
to him who had the Fruits of a Benefice to himfelf, and his
Heirs and Succeffors  as in antient time Abbots and Priors
PROPRIETARY-Monks, were fuch     as had   referved
Goods and Effe s to themselves, notwithilanding their for-
mal Renunciation of all at the Time of their Profeflion.
They are frequently mentioned in the Monaft. Anglic. &c.
and were to be very feverely dealt withal; to be Excom-
municated, deprived of Burial, Uc. -Monachi Proprietarii
excomnmunicentur ab Abbatibus, & fi in morte Proprietarius
inventus fterit, Eccleftaftica careat Sepultura, 0c. Addir.
ad Matt. Par.
PROPRIETATE Probanda, is a Writ that lies for him
that would prove a Propriety before the Sheriff.
For where a Property is alledged, a Replegiare properly
lies not. See REPLEGIARE.
PROPRIETY, in Grammar, is, where the diresl and
immediate Signification of a Word agrees to the thing it
is apply'd to.
In which fenfe Propriety is ufed in oppofition to a figu-
rative, or remote Signification.
PROPYLIEUM, the Porch of a Temple, or Great Hall.
Hence the Word is ufed figuratively in Matters of Learn-
ing for an lntrodutlion, Apparatus, or Prodromus to fome
greater Work.-In this fenfe we fay, the fProtpyeum of the
fuits at Antwverp, &c.
The Word is Greek ru,;ruxaeov, fignifying the fame thing.
PRO-QUESTOR, PRO-QuzEsToR, the Queflor's Lieu-
tenant, or a Perfon who discharged the Office of Queftor in
his Tlead. See Q    OESTeR.
The Word is chiefly apply'd to an Officer appointed by
the Governour of a Province to discharge the Queflure after
the deceafe of the Queflor, till the Senate and People
Thould fend a new one.
PRO-RATA, in Commerce, a Term fometimes ufed
among Merchants, for Proportion. See PROPORTION.
Thus, when in fpeaking of any Undertaking they fay,
Each Perfon muft reap the Profit or fuflain the Lofs in Pro-
rata to his Intereft ; 'tis meant, each Shall gain or lofe in
proportion to the Sum he put in Stock.
PRO-RATA TPortionis, in Law, fee ONER AN DOpro rata
E ortionis.
PRORjE Os, in Anatomy, a Bone of the Cranium, call'd
alfo Os Occipitis. See Os OCCIPITIS.
PROROGATION, the A& of prolonging, adjourning,
or putting off to another Time.
Tle difference between a Prorogation and an Adjourn-
mnent of Parliament, is, that by the Prorogation in open
Court the Seffion is ended; and fuch Bills aspaffed in either
Houfe, or both Houfes, and had not the Royal Affent, mull
at the next Affembly begin again: For every Seffion Qf
Parliament, is in Law a feveral Parliament. SeeSESSION.
If it be only adjourn'd, then there is no Sefflon i and, con-
fequently, all things continue in tie fame State they were
in before the Adjournment. See ADJOURN MENT.
This difference between Prorogation and Adjournment is
of no long flanding; antiently they were ufed as Synoni-
mous-Prorogetur Curia de Hora in .oram, quoufque
Flacitum terminctur, MS de L L.
To Prorogue the Parliament the King goes in Perron,
with his Crown on his Head; and fends the Black Rod for
the Houfe of Commons to attend him at the Bar of the
Houfe of Lords; where, after giving an Anfwer to each
Bill fignified to him, he makes a Speech; and the Lord
Chancellor, by command,fignifies the Parliament to be 'Pro-
rogued. See PARLIAMENT.
PROSCENIUM, in the antient Theatre, the Pulpitum,
or Eminence whereon the Roman Aaors exhibited. See
The Profenium anfwer'd to our Stage.
It confifled of two Parts among the Greeks; one particu-
larly fo call'd, where the Actors perform'd. The other
was the Logeion, where the Singers and the Mimicks acted
their Parts.
Among the Romans, the Profcnium and Pulpirum were
thefgmething. See PULPITUM.
PROSCRIPTION, a Publication made in the Name of
the Chief or Leader of a Party, whereby he promifes a
Reward to any who fhall bring him the Read of one of his
ScYlla and Mgarius by turns profcribed each other's Ad-
herents.-Under the Triumvirate a great part of tho bhef
And braveR of the Romans f11 by !'rofcrzption.
8D99) PaR O
The Term took its Rife from the Pra&ice of writing
down a Lift of the Perfons Names, and poffing it in pub-
lick; from pro, andfcribo, I write.
PROSE, the natural Language of Mlankind; loofe, arnd
unconfin'd by poetical Meafures, Rhimes, &c.
The Word is ufed in oppofition to Tferft. See VERsE.
Tho' Profe have its Conneaions, which fullain it; and
a Struclure, which renders it numerous; it ought Still to
appear free: its Charaaer confitis in running eafy, and un-
rettrain'd. SeeSTYLE.
Poets very rarely have the Talent of Prefe: The Habit
of wearing Chains fits fafl upon 'emn, even when the Chains
are off.
S. Evremond compares Profe-Writers to Foot-Travellers,
who walk with lefs Noife, but more Security than the
The Word comes from the Latin Profia, which fonie will
have derived from the Hebrewzu "oras, expc;zdit.
PROSECUTOR, in Law, is he that Furfues a Caufe in
another's Name. S e PROMOTEr,.
PROSELYTE, a new Convert to the Faith. See CON-
The Term was much tufed in the Primitive Church-
The Yews, too, had their Proflytes i who from Gentiles
embrac'd .7udaifm.
The Word is pure Greek vC9-swAx17a; which in Latin
fignifies Advena; in .Englijb, Stranger, or one ariv'd out of
another Country.
PROSODY, PROSODIA, that part of Grammar which
teaches and dire&s the Pronunciation, and manner of Re-
hearfal; marks the Accents, and diffiniiuifhes the lone and
fhort Syllables. See GRAMMAR, PRONUNCIATION, doC.
The Word is form'd from the Greek a-e70aido,, accino i
of ;rv; and &SI.n, Cantus, Singing.
Profody is properly that Branch of Grammar which re-
lates to Syllables; treating of their true Pronunciation in
refpeat of Accent and Time. SeeSYLLABLE: See alfo
The .EngliJh Profoa3 turns chiefly on two Things; Num-
bers, that is, a certain number of Feet or Syllables. See
And, Rhime, or a Similitude of Sound between the laft
Syllables of Verbs. See RHIME.
The Greek and Roman Profodies were unacquainted with
Rhime; but in lieu thereof, had Something to make their
Verfe harmonious, without, viz. Qu1antity. See QUAN-
PROSONOMASIA, gvov7auaoVn, a Figure in Rhetoric,
whereby allufion is made to the Likenefs of a Sound in fe-
veral N ames, or Words. See FI G U R E.
PROSOPOPOEIA, in Rhetoric, a Figure, whereby we
make Perfons that are abfent, or dead, or even Things
which are inanimate, as Cities, S5c. to fpeak. See FIG URE.
The Poets, in their Fialions, make frequent ufe of the
Profoopotia; as alfo do the Orators, in their painting of
violent Paffions, which feem to tranfport, and make them
forget themfelves.
There are two kinds of Pro/opola'ia's, the one dire2;
the other indire&.
For an inflance of the latter: Yzft Gods, Trotedors of
the Innocent, permit the Order of Nature to be interrupted
for one moment, and let tots Carcafe refutme the are of
Speech, &c.
Inflances of the former are found every where, among
the Orators and Poets, that which follows, is a very beiuti-
ful one, found by way of Epitaph on a Tomb-lone: The
dead Wife addrees her furviving Husband, thus:
Immatura peri :    ed tu felicior, annos
Vive tuos, con .nx optime, vive meos.
The Word is form'd from the Greek zgroayr, Terfon, and
'zoisf, I make, or feign.
PROSPECT.            )      C PERSPECTrVE.
PROSTAPHIERESIS, in Aflionomy, the Difference be-
tween the true, and mean Motion, or true and mean Place,
of a Planet; call'd alfo Equation of the Orbit, or of thU
Centre, and fimply the Equation. See EyUATION. .
Or, which amounts to the fame, Profalpherefts is the
difference between the mean, and equated Anomaly. See
Thus, fuppofe the Circle ALMPN (Tab. ASTRONO-
MY, fig. 51.) the or Orbit of the Earth, Surrounded by the
Ecliptic 1$, A, :, Lc. and fuppofe S, the Sun; and
the Earth in R: the mean Anomaly will be the Arch A P Rt
or, cafling away the Semicircle, the Arch PR, or, the
Angle P C R; and the true Anomaly, rejecting the Semi-
circle, will be P S R, which is equal to PC R and C RS.
If then to the mean Anomaly, we add the Angle C R5,
we thall have the true Anomaly P S R, and the Earth's
Place, in the Ecliptic,. See PLACE, ae

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