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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

(1728)

Poyning - printing, pp. 857-878 PDF (21.0 MB)

Page 857

( 7 ~1 ., a contagious Difeafe contra1ed by a poi- rfually in Coition; and manifefiling itfelf oains. See VENEREAL 2Jifeafe. call it Mal de Naples, the Neapolita Difeafe, 4ferved among the Soldiery at the Siege of !iarlesV II.s The Italians call it Maltran- eFrenchl eDiftafe, becaufe firil caught by the Spaniards call it Sarva das Indias, becaufe om the Wejf-Indies. s La-w, an AcS of Parliament made in Ire- yVII. whereby all the Statutes of force in nade of force in Ireland; which before that not. now in force there, made in England fince k its Name from Sir Edward Poyning, Lord he time of its making. , in Arithmetic, PRACTICA Italica, orIta- ertain compendious ways of working the ortion, or Golden Rule. See GOLDEN hus call'd from their expediting of Fraclice, and becaufe firfi introduced by 'the Mer- gotiants of Italy. See RULE. :ful of thefe Pratlices are as folloW: Ufe of the Rule of Three is to find a fourth 3 three given Numbers i divide the firfil and irfi and third by fome common Number, if ie exaaly; and work with the Quotients in is in the following Example. It is 9 Shil. What's the Price of 7 It? 3 3 Facit 21 Shil. Price of i4 tb is 26 Shil. What's the Price of 7 tb? 7) 2.)- I Facit 13 Shil. 20. If the firil Lerm be :, and the fecond an aliquot part of a Pound, Shilling, or Penny; divide the third by the aliquot Part: The Quotient is the Anfwer. Note, To find the aliquot part; thofe who cannot do it otherwife, may fee the Table of aliquot parts of a Pound under the .Article MULTIPLICATION. ,E.gr. If I Ell cot IoShil. Whatcoff 957 Ells. Facit i. 478: 10S. 3f. If the firfi or third Number be I i the other not ex- ceeding large ; and the middle Term a Compound, i. e. confilt of feveral Denominations; it may be wrought with- out Reduction thus: Price of I lb is 3 s. 8 d. 3 q. What's the price of 5 It? 5 Facit '8S. 7d. 3q. For 4. Farthings making a Penny, 5 times 3 Farthings make 3 d. q. and Izz Pence making I Shilling, five times eight Pence make 3 S. 4 d. which with 3 d. from the place of Farthings, make 3 S. 7 d. Laffly, five times 3 Shillings makes 1 5 Shillings, and with the 3 Shillings from the place of Pence, 18 S. The- price required therefore is I8 s. 7 d. 3q- e. if the middle Term be not an aliquot, but an ali- quant part; refolve the aliquant part into its aliquot parts; divide the middle Term by the feveral aliquots, the Sum of the Quotients is the Anfwer. To find the aliquot parts ccntain'd in an aliquant; fee the Table of aliquant parts of a Poiund under the Article MULTIPLICATION. For an Inflance of this Rule: If I Ell coft x 5 Shil. What coil 124 E lls? L ')6z 4 31 Facit 93 1. 59. If the firfi, or fecond Term be I ; and in the for- -mer cafe, the fecond, or third, in the latter the firfl, be resolvable into Fadors ; the whole Operation may be per- formed in the Mind without writing down any Figures: As in the following Example. Price of I b is 24 Shil. What is the price of 2s lb? 4 4 6 6 Facit 4810 S.-241. 40. Where one of the given Numbers is Yr we have feveral compendious Ufages, to fave Multiplication, and Divifion. E.gr. If 9 Pounds cot} 20 s. What does X Pound coil? 'Tis obvious the Sum required is had by adding to the tenth part of so S. viz. 2 s. the ninth part of that tenth, YJZZ 3 d. a, and !-of a Penny; The Anfwer therefore is as. 3 d. - and . PXA Again If 5 tb coil 5& Shillings, What coils 1 fli Since 5 is half of to, the double of the tenth part of tho given pricei viz. Io s 9 d. t q. is the Sum required. Again: If I lb cotl 8 d. What will 1i lbcot+? X Since x92.C-I i from the given price doubled, ttnd iticreafed bya Cypher, v.Z. 360, fubflraa the fimple I8; the Remainder is 342 di. 28 S. 6 A. the Sum required. 70. If two Terms of the fame Denomination differ by an Unit, we have a peculiar kind of Compend i which will be clear from the following Examples E. gr. If 5 lb coil 30s S. What will 4 t col, Since the price of 41lb is one fifth part fhort of that of 5 lb. divide the given price 30 by 5; the Quotient 6 being fubflraded from the Dividend; the Remainder, viz. 24 S is the Sum required. Again: If 8 tl col 24 S. What coil 9 t1? Since the price of 9 lb exceeds that of 8 by one eighth part; divide the given Price 24 by8; and add the Quo- tient 3 to the Dividend ; the Sum z7 is the Anfwer. 8f. Sometimes one may ufe feveral of thefe Compounds, or Prraices in the fame Queflion. Egr. If loo lb colt 30S. 4 d. What cofls 5o t ? 50)2. 2- - Facit I 5 s. 2 d. Again: 6o lI cOil 4 S. What coils 2520? 6 42 24 7 6 7 1681. PRAE, a Latin Prepofition, literally' fignifying before; ufed in Compofition, with feveral Words in our Language, to denote the relation of Priority. See PREPOSITION and COMPOSITION. Of late, our Writers, in Words thoroughly anglicized, for pre ufually write pre, refiraining the Latin Orthogra- phy to Words that are flill Latin. Hence, for PR.EADAMITE, f- CPREADAMITE. PRJECESSION, l P RECESSION. PR.1ECIPE, | PRECIPE. PRACONTRACT, PRECONTRACT. PRAECEPTORY, | | PRECEPTORY. PRAEDECESSOR, I PR EDECESSOR. PREDETERMINA- I PREDETERMINATION. TION, I I PREDESTINA- >See <PREDESTINATION. TION, PREDICTION, | PREDICTION. PREIDOMINANT, PREDOMI N ANT. PREEXISTENCE, PREEXISTENCE. PREFECTUS, PREFECT. PRJEEMPTION, I PREEMPTION. PRAETOR, | PRETOR. PRETORIAN, J PRETORIAN, SC. PRAECORDIA, the parts about the Heart; e. gr. the Pericardium, the Diaphragm, the Hypochondria, and even the Heart itfelf; with the Lungs, Spleen, Wc. See HEART. The Word is ordinarily ufed for the fore-part of the Re- gion of the Thorax. See THORAX. Pliny, and fome other Authors, ufe it for all the Vifcera, or Entrails. Trfcordia vocamus ano nomine exta in lo- Wine. SeeVISCERA. One of the principal Differences between Men and Brutes, confifis in this; that there is a grieater Correfpon- dence and Communication between the Head and Heart of the former than the latter: Which Correfpondence is effeaed by means of a greater Number of Nerves, fent from the Brain to the Heart and Prxcordia; Brutes only receiving Nerves to the Precordia by the Branches of the Far Fagum ; and Man, likewife, by the Intercofial Pair. The Reafon, Dr. Willis well obferves, is, that Brutes being void of Difcretion, and but little fubje& to Pafflions, need not, like Man, a double Paffage for the Spirits, the one for the Service of the vital Funtfions, the other for the reciprocal Impreffion of the Affeaions. See NERvE, SPIRIT, BRAIN, VC. PREMIUM, literally denotes a Reward, or Recom- pence. Among Merchants, it is taken for that Sum of Money, viz. S or loper Cent. which is given to an Infurer, for in- furing the fafe Return of any Ship, or Merchandize. See POLICY of Infurance. The fame Term is alfo ufed in the Money and Paper- Trade, for what is given fora thing above Par. Thus, Lottery-Tickets, Uec. are faid to bear fo much, e.gr. jo or 2os. Prem. when they are fold for fo much beyond the prime Coil at which the Government vended them. PRAINOM EN, among the Romxans, a proper Name; or Name prefixed to the general Name of the Family i as, Caims, Lucius, Marcus, &c. See NAuE. to I The P RA A i. N s i I 1 i i R I I

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