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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

M - mapparius,   pp. 478-497 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 478

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M           A Confonant, and the Twelfth Letter in the
Englv/b Alphabet. It is pronounced by
7hrikkin the upper Lip againfi the lower;
in which the Pronunciation of this Letter
agrees with that of b: the only Difference between the
two confifling in a little Motion made in the Nofe in the
Pronunciation of M, and not in b: whence it happens that
thofe who have taken Cold, for AM ordinarily pronounce B1
the Nofe in that cafe being difabled from making the
neceffary Motion. See B.
Q2uintilian obferves, that the M Sometimes ends Latin
Words, but never Greek; the Greeks always changing it in
that Cafe into N, for the fake of the better Sound.
M is alfo a Numeral Letter, and among the Antients
was ufed for a Thoufand i according to the Verfe,
M Caput eft Numeri quem fcimus Milke tenere.
When a Dafh is added a top of it, it fignifies a thou-
fand times a thoufand; ja.
The Letter M in AfIronomical Tables, and other things
of that kind, is ufed for Meridional or Southern.
M, in Medicinal Prefcription, is frequently ufed to fig-
nify a Manipule, or Handful; and is fometimes alfo put
at the end of a Recipe, for Mifce, mingle; or Mixtura, a
M, in Law, was the Brand or Stigma of a Perfon con-
vicfed of Murder, and admitted to the Benefit of his
Clergy. It was burnt on the Brawn of his left Thumb.
MACARONIC, or MACARONIAN; a kind of Bur-
lefque Poetry ; confifling of a Jumble of Words of diffe-
rent Languages, with Words of the vulgar Tongue lati-
niz'd, and Latin Words moderniz'd. For Inflance, a bold
Fellow, in the Macaronic Stile, fays;
Enfilavi omnes Scadrones 0 Regimandos, &c.
Another Example:
Archeros Pifloliferos furiamque Manantum,
Et grandem efJmenram que inopinum fa~la Ruele ejc
Toxinumque alto troublantem Corda Clochero, &c.
Macarone, among the Italians, as has been obferved by
Clgus Rhodiginus, fignifies a coarfe clownifh Man; and
becaufe this kind of Poetry, being patch'd out of feveral
Languages, and full of extravagant Words, is not fo po-
lite and fmooth as thofe of Virgil, &c. the Italians, a-
mong whom it had its Rife, gave it the Narne of Maca-
ronian and Macaronic Poetry. Others rather chufe to de-
rive it a lacaronzbls, from Makarons ; a kind of little Cakes
made of Meal not boulted, with Eggs and Cheefe; ac-
counted a great Dainty among the Country People in Ita-
ly; which, from their being compofed of various Ingre-
dients, occafion'd this kind of Poetry, which confifis of
Latin, Italian, Spani/h, French, Engli/h, &c. to be called
by their Name.
Theopb. iFolingiss, a Benedilin Monk of Mantua, was the
firfi who invented, or at lea11 cultivated, this kind of
Verfe: For tho we have a Macaronea Ariminenfis in a very
old Letter, beginning, Ejt Author Tiphis Leonicus atque Pa-
rags fs; yet it feems to have been the Work of Guarinus
Capellus Sarfinas, who in the Year J 526 printed fix Books
of Macaronic Poetry, in Cabrinum Gagamoge Regem but as
both thefe came out after the firif Edition of Folingius,
which was publifh'd under the Name of Merlin Coccaye,
in 152.0; fo were they likewife much inferior to him both
in the Stile, Invention and Epifodes wherewith he has en-
rich'd the Hiflory of Baldsis; which makes the Subjed of
his Poem. The famous D. Rabelais tranflated the Maca-
ron;c Stile out of the Italian Verfe into French Profe, and
on the Model thereof form'd fome of the bell things in
his Pantagruel. Merlin Coccaye met with fo much Succefs
in his new Way, that he compofed another Book partly
in Macaronic Stile, call'd II Chars del tri per uno ; but with
very different Succefs. After this, appear'd in Italy, Ma-
caronica de Syndicaru, U Condemnnatione Do~loris Samfonis Lem-
hi, a low Performance; and Macaronis Furza, an excellent
one, by Stefonio a Jefuit.  In i62o, Bajani publifhed a
carnavale Tabula Macar onea. The la{+ Ita/ian who wrote
in this way, was Cefar Urfinius, to whom  we owe Capricia
Macaronica Magiflri Stopini Poetre Pouzanenfis, printed in
i636. The firfm who fucceeded in the Macaronic Stile a-
mong the Frencb was Antonius de Arena Provenfalis de Bra-
gardif/ma Villa de Soleriis, in two Poems, which he has left
us; de Arte Danfandi, U de Guerra Neapolitaza Romana L
Genuenfi. He was follow'd by another Lawyer, who wrote
Hifloria Bravifma Caroli V. Imnperat. a Proviizcialibus Payfanlis
triumpbanter fugati. Some time after Renii Bclteaut, a-
mong his other French Poefies, printed Diilamesn Metrificurm
se Bello Huw7onotico, U Rufticorurn Pigliamine ad Sodales; a
Piece much valued. This was fucceeded by cacafanga
Reiflro Suaio Lanfqnenetorun per A /1. B. Licbiardum _pal-
fpercinum toetam ; to which Stephen Tabouret return'd an
Anfwer in the fanle Strain. Lattly, 7okn Ezdward dA Mevon
enter'd the Lifis, and left us inter teriJ;natafua Carnmen 4-
renaicurm de quorundam Nugigerulorum Psaffa intfupportabili.
The Recitus Veritabilis fuper terribili efmeuta Fayaxorurn de
Ruellio, is one of the belt Pieces of this kind.
We have but little in Engl/h in the Macaronian Way;
nothing fcarce, but fome little loofe Pieces colleaed in
Cambden's Remains: which is no Difcredit to our Authors:
for one may fay of fuch Pieces in general,
Turpe eft Defciles babere Nuges,
Et Stultus Labor eft Ineptiarum.
The Germans and Netherlanders have had their Macaronic
Poets; witnefs the Cerramen Catholicum cum Calvindi~ts, of
one Martinius Hamcenixs Erifus, which  contains abovu
twelve hundred Verfes, all the Words whereof begin
with the Letter C.
MACE, a Medicinal Bark, the outermofi of the three
which covers the Nutmeg. It is of an afiringent and
drying Nature, and is ufed as a Correaor in Cardiac and
Cathartic Compofitions. See Nutmeg.
MACERATION, in Pharmacy and Chymiflry, is un-
derflood of a certain Preparation of Medicines, otherwifa
exprefs'd by the Word Digeflion. Others however re-
firain the Word to that particular kind of Digeflion, which
is performed in a thick Matter; as when, for inflance,
having mix'd Rofes with Fat to make Ltnguent. Rojatun,
the Mixture is expofed for fome Days to the Sun, that
the Virtue of the Rofes may be the better communicated
to the Fat. See Digeftion.
MACHINE, in the general, fignifies any thing that
ferves to augment or regulate movinh Powers; or Macbhie
may be defined any Body definerd to produce Motion,.
fo as to fave either Time or Force. There are fix prin-
cipal Macbines, to which all the others may be reduced ;
viz. the Balance, Lever, Wheel, Pulley, Wedge, and
Screw. Thefe are call'd Simple Machines; and of thefe
all other compound ones confid.e For the Doarine of
thefe, fee Balance, Lever, &c. See alfo Mechanic Powers.
The Number of compound Machines is now almoff in-
finite; and yet the Antients feem to have out-done the
Moderns in this refpe&. Their Machines of War, Ar..
chitedure, 0c. being defcribed as vafily fuperior td
Machine for Building, is an Afremblage of Pieces of
Wood fo difpofed, as that by means of Ropes and Pul-
kLys, a fmall Number of Men may raife vail Loads, and
lay 'em in their Places; as Cranes, &c. 'Tis hard to
conceive what Machines the Antients muff have ufed to
raife thofe immenfe Stones found in forne of the antique
Hydraulic, or Water Machine, is either ufed to fignify a
fimple Machine, ferving to conduct or raife Water; as a
Sluice, Pumvp, Lc. or feveral of thefe ading together,
to produce fome extraordinary Effe& ; as the Machine of
Marly; the Primum Mobile whereof is an Arm of the River
Seine, which by its Stream turns feveral large Wheel',
which work the Handles, and thefe with Pitlons raife the
Water up into the Pumps, and with other Pif{ons force it
up in Pipes againft the Afcent of a Hill to a Refervoir in a
Stone Tower, 6z Fathom higher than the River; fufficient
to fupply Verfaiffes with a conflant Stream 220 Inches in
Machines of War: Thefe among the Antients were of
three kinds ; the firft ferving to launch Arrows, as the
Scorpion; Javelins,as the Catapulta; Stones,as the Balifla;
or fiery Darts, as the Pyraboli; the fecond ferving to beat
down Walls, as the battering Ram and 'erebra; and the
third to mhelter thofe who approach'd the Enemies Wall i
as the Tortoife or Tefludo, and the Towers of Wood.
The Machines of War now in ufe, confift in Artillery,
Bombs, Petards, $ec. Tho it mull be obferved, that in
flridnefs, a Machine is fomething that confifis more in
Art and Invention, than in the Strength and Solidity of
the Materials; and for this reafon it is that the Inventors
of Machines are call'd Ingenieurs or Ingeneers.  See En-
gine. The Word comes from the Greek,       i Machine,
Invention, Art.
Machine, in Dramatic Poetry, a Term ufed, when
the Poet brings fome Divinity or Supernatural Being up-
on the Stage j to perform faoice Exploit, or folve fome
Difficulty out of the reach of Human Power. The Ma-
cbines of the Drama are Gods, Angels, Ghoils, Zc.
which are fo called from the M'acbines or Contrivances by
which they are prefented upon the Stage, and afterwards
removed again. Hence the Ufe of the Word has alfo
palfed into the Epic Poem  tho' the Reafon of its Name
be there wanting : The Word, however, is us'd in the
fame Senfe in both, viz, for the Intervention or Z:rf.rv

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