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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Clausum - coining,   pp. 233-252 PDF (18.5 MB)

Page 233

CL                       .(Z                                CL          
          9 oni rm
r, -Derogatory Claufe, Penal C(lanfe, Codicillary  the Ctofs Cleche, and
call it by the Name Vgide, Xvi ed.
?folutary Clatife. See each of thefe in its Place, The thing that denominates
it Clechi, is its Spreading from
TORY, PENAL, S-è'C.                          the Centre towards the
Extremities, which are very wides
SUM Fregit, an Affion of Trefpafs 5 thus calld, and end in an Angle in the
middle; as in the Figure ad-
the Writ demands the Perfon fummon'd to anfwer joining.
clanftum fregit, why he committed fuch a Trefpafs.  The Word is French, fuppos'd
to be fbrm'd of Clef, Key;
PASS.                                        the Ends of the Crofs being
thought to bear fome refem-
US, in Antiquity, a Band or Fillet of Purple, more  blance to the Bowls of
the antient Keys.
)ad, according to the Dignity of the Perfon i us'd  CLEDONISM, CLEDON ISMUS,
a kind of Divination
eantient Romans: whence the Difference of the  in ufe among the Antients.
tgujliclavia, and Laticlavia. See LATICLAVUS, SC.  The Word is form'd from
the Greek xv.nJ'ov which figni-
'rnament, according to fome, was call'd Clavus, fies two things, Rumor, a
Report, and Avis, a Bird: In
being fet with little round Plates of Gold, or  the firft Senfe, Cledonifin
is a kind of Divination drawn from
e the Heads of Nails. Cantelius maintains, that  Words occafionally utter'd.
Cicero obferves, that the Ty7
confided of a kind of Purple Flowers, fewed upon  thagoreans made Obfervation
not only of the Words of the
Gods, but of thofe6 of Men. and accordingly believ'd the
r, in Medicine, a Name Phyficians give to a  pronouncing of certain Words,
v. g, the Word Incendium, at
Pain in the Head, commonly fituate a little above  a Meal, very unhappy.
viz. on the Sinus Frontalis; and fuppos'd to re-  Thus, inilead of Prifon,
they us'd the Word Domiciliium 3
boring of the Head thro' with an Augre; whence  and to avoid Erinnies faid
e. In forue 'tis only in one, and in others in both.  In the fecond Senfe,
Cledonifim fhou!d feem a Divination
aerally allow'd to be a Species of an Ague, or an  drawn from Birds; the
fame with Ornithomantia. See O&-
ig Fever; its Periods of coming or going, being  NITHOMANCY.
lular or flated. In fome 'tis Quotidian, in others  CLEF, CLIFF, or Key,
in Mufick, a Mark at the Be-
See FEVER.                                   ginning of the Lines of a Song,
which {hews the Tone, or
ire confifis in giving an Emetic a little before the  Key in which the Piece
is to begin. Or, it is a Letter
frer, confirming it with a proper Quantity of the  mark'd on any Line, which
explains and gives the Name to
Vc. as in intermitting Fevers: tho Bleeding and  all the reff. See KEY.
ics fometimes efFe& a Cure without other Affiltants.  Antiently, every
Line had a Letter mark'd for a Clef i
like to this on the top of the Head, Sometimes  now a Letter on one Line
fuffices . fince by this all the reft
flerical Perions; which by Dr. Sydenham is term'd  are known; reckoning up
or down in the Order of the
;(ericns. See HYSTERIC.                       Letters.
I is al~o us'd in Medicine, for a Callus form'd on the  'Tis call'd the Clef,
or Key, becaufe hereby we know
pularly call'd a Corn. See CALLUS.            the Names of all the other
Lines and Spaces; and confe-
rife from a too great Compreflion of the Ctsti ; quently the Quantity of
every Degree, or Interval.
this means hardens, and forms it felf into a Knot.  But becaufe every Note
in the Octave is call'd a Key,
is by firil foftening 'em, as with Emplaft. deRanis tho in another Senfe,
this Letter mark'd, is call'd in a parti-
:1urio, or Mynficlit. Galban. Crecat. with Sal Am-  cular manner the Sign'd
Clef; becaufe being written on any
and then plucking 'em up. A piece of raw Beef, Line, it not only figns and
marks that one, but explains all
i mwanner of a Plaifier, and frequently fhifted, is the refd.
lifsipate 'em in a little time.                 By CLEF, therefore, for diftin'tion-fake,
we mean that
, in Natural Hiflory, a foft vifcous Earth, found in  Letter fign'd on a
Line, which explains the refi; and by Key
aces, and us'd for various Purpofes, of feveral Kinds  the principal Note
of a Song, in which the Melody clofes-
rties. See EARTH, SOIL, EC.                     There are three of thefe
Sign'd Clefs, c, f, g. The Clef
qetr, in the Philofophical Yrranfaflions, gives us a  of the higheff Part
in a Song, call'd Treble, or Alt, is g fet
2.2. feveral Clays found in the feveral Counties of on the fecond Line counting
upwards. The Clef ofthe Bafs,
five whereof he calls pure, i. e. fuch as are foft, or the lowedt Part, isf
on the fourth Line upwards: For all
t:r, to the Teeth, with little or no Grittinefs in  the other mean Parts,
the Clef is c, Sometimes on one, fome-
l. Fullers Earth, which he diflinguiflies by its times on another Line. Indeed,
foune that are really mean
t yellowish, brown, and white. See FULLERS Earth. Parts, are Sometimes fet
with the g Clef. See BASS, gC.
es. See BoLE.                                   It mufl, however, be obferv'd,
that the ordinary Signa-
4yellow Clay. 4. Co'hot Clay. 5. Dark blue    tures of Clefs bear little
refemblance to thofe Letters. Mr.
Marle.                                        Malcolm thinks it would be
well if we us'd the Letters
ecn impure; whereof eight are harfh and dufly  themselves.  Kepler takes
a world of Pains, to fhew
as, I, Creta, or milk-white Clay.  2. Potters  that the common Signatures
are only Corruptions of the Let-
w Clay.  3. Bble Potters Clay.  4. .Blae Clay, ters they represent. See their
Figure among the other CHA-
s found the Aifroites. 5. Yellow Claw.  6. Fine  RACTERS of MAujrck.
7. Soft chalky blne Clay. 8. Soft chalky red Clay.  The Clefs are always
taken Fifths to one another: That
are flony when dry, viz. r. A red flony Clay. 2. A  is, the Clef f is lowell,
c a Fifth above it, and g a Fifth
Clay. A. A white flony Clay.                 above c.
are mix'd with Sand, or Pebbles, viz. I. a yellow  When the Place of the
Clcf is chang'd, which is not fre-
A red fandy Clay. 3. A fecond Species of the  quent in the mean Clef, 'tis
with Defign to make the Syflem
ad.                                           comprehend as many Notes of
the Song as poffible, and fo
three are mix'd with flat or thin Sand, glittering  to have the fewer Notes
above or below it. If then there
a: viz. i. Crouch white Clay. z. Grey or bluilh  be many Lines above the
Clef, and few below it, this Pur-
Oipe Cay. I. A red Clay.                      pofe is anfwer'd by placing
the Clef in the firli or fecond
ES, in Fortification, are Wattles made with Stakes, Line: If there be many
Notes below the Clef, 'tis plac'd
with Oziers, Fic. to cover Lodgments. See FAs- higher in the Syfiem. In effeA,
according to the Relation
of the other Notes to the Clef Note, the particular Syftem
ING of Land. See MANURE.                     is taken differently in the
Scale; the Clef Line making one
R, in Building, is fometimes us'd among the Work-  in all the Variety. See
he infide Work of a Houfe, Fec. See HOUSE, Wc.  But fill, in whatever Line
of the particular Syflem any
RING of Liquors. See CLARIFICATION.           Clef is found, it mull be underflood
to belong to the fame of
alt Liquors, particularly Beer, there are various  the general Syfleem, and
to be the fame individual Note or
of clearivng; the bell is by calling into it fix'd Ni-  Sound in the Scale.
add the Quinteffence of Malt and Wine; whites  By this conflant Relation
of Clefs, we learn how to com-
nade into Balls with a little Flower and Izing-glafs: pare the feveral particular
Syffems of the feveral Parts ; and
Quinteflence of Barley have the fame Effe&. It know how they communicate
in the Scale, i. a. which Lines
ngly clear'd and firengthen'd, by adding to it, du- are Unifon, and which
not: for 'tis not to be fuppos'd that
time of its Fermentation, fome ardent Spirit. See  each Part has certain
Bounds, within which another muft
IQUOR. BEERP.Pa c                             never I---  0-m   -_r,    
   u     --rl -T-hlF In a  I hlw
'~"' ~"*.-.OUUICU X4L'U[O Ut tiiC I reoie, v. g. 11naU Utz Iuw-s
CLECHE', or CLECHE'E, -in He-      than fome of the mean Parts, or even of
the Bafs. To put
raldry, is ufually underflood of an Ordi- together therefore in one Sytlem
all the Parts of a Compo-
nary open to the Light, or pierc'd thro' fition written feparately, the Notes
of each Part mull be
with another inner one of the fame Fi-  plac'd at the fame Diflances above
and below the proper
gure; e.g.. when a Crofs appears as if Clef, as they fRand in the feparate
Syllem; and becaufe all
charg'd with another Crofs of the fame  the Notes that are confonant, (or
heard together) mudt
Colour with the Field; or as if the ftand perpendicularly over each other,
that the Notes be-
Field  appeared thro' the Apertures  longing to each Part may be difinaly
known, they may be
thereof,                             made with fuch Diflerences as lhall
not confound or alter
But Colombierc. and fome other Wri- their Significatinns with refrclc to
Time, but only fhew that
have this piercing to be only a CircumAfance of they belong to this or that
Part. Thus hall we't e how
havethi piecin    I      f      -                     ar.    Tu' i    IIPpp

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