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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Alguazil - anagram,   pp. 61-82 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 61

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ALGUAZIL, in the Spanijb Policy, a   erjeatit br Offi-
ter, who arre-fs People, and executes the Magifirate's Or-
ders. See SERJEANT, &c.
I ALHANDAL, a Term in the Arabian Pharmacy.-
The Troches of Albandal, !lrochizfi Albandale, are a kind
of Troches, compofed of Colocynthis, Bdellium, and Gum
Tragacanth. See TAOCH E.
They are efleemed good Purgatives, and are ufed on di-
vers Occafions. See PURGATIVE.
The Word is formed of the Arabic Handel, or Handhal,
a Name for Colocynthisu See COLOCYNTHIS.
ALHIDADE, or ALIDADE, the Index or Label of an
Afironomical, or Geometrical Infirument, for taking of
Heights or Difiances.-The Alhidade is a kind of Ruler,
moveable on the Centre of the Infirument; and carrying the
Sights. See INDEX, SIGHTS, WC. See alfo ASTROLABE,
The Word is Arabic, where it fignifies the fame thing.-
In Greek and Latin, it is called Jtarlesy, Dioptra, and Linea
Fiducia', Fiducial Line.
ALIEN, in Law, a Perfon born out of the King's Al-
legiance, and consequently not capable of inheriting Lands
in England, till naturaliz'd by AGE of Parliament. See NA-
Of thefe there are two Kinds, viz. Alien-Friends, who
are of thofe Countries which are at peace and league with
us; and Enemies, who are of Countries at war with us.
A Man born out of the Land, fo it be within the Limits
of the King's Obedience beyond the Seas * or of EngliJb
Parents out of the King's Obedience, fo the Parents at the
Time of the Birth be of fuch Obedience, is no Alien, but
a Subjea of the King: Stat. 2. 25 Edw. III. commonly cal,
led the Statute De natis ultra mare.
Add, that if one born out of the King's Allegiance come
and dwell in England ; his Children begotten here are not
Aliens, but Denizens. See DENIZEN.
ALIEN Priories, were thofe Cells of Monks, formerly
eflablilhed in England, which belonged to foreign Monafle-
ALIENATION, ALIENATIO, in Law, the AG of ma-
king a thing another Man's ; or the altering, and transfer-
ring the Property and PoeTflion of Lands, Tenements, or
other Things, from one Man to another. See TRANSFER-
To alienate, or alien, in Mortmain, is to make over Lands
or Tenements to a Religious Community, or other Body
Politick. See MORTMAIN.
To alienate in Fee, is to fell the Fee-fimple of any Land,
or other incorporeal Right. See FEE.
Crown-Lands are only alienable under a Faculty of per-
petual Redemption. See REDEMPTION.
The Council of Lateran, held in iiz3, forbids any Clerk
to alienate his Benefice, Prebend, or the like. See PRE-
11END, FC.
AL1ENATION-Ofice, is an Office to which all Writs of
Covenants and Entry, upon which Fines are levied and
Recoveries fuifer'd, are carried; to have Fines for Alienation
fet and paid thereon. See COVENANT,RECOVERY,FINE,V-C.
ALIFORMES Proceffus, in Anatomy, the Prominences
of the Os Cuneiforme. See CUNEIFORME.
ALIFORMES Mufculi, a Pair of Mufcles, arifing from the
!Pteryroide Bone, and ending in the Neck of the lower Jaw,
towards the internal Seat of tie Head. See PTERYGOIDES, L:c.
They are thus called from- the Latin Ala, Wing, and
Forma, Shape; as refembling Wings.
ALIMENT, ALIMENTUM, Food, in a phyfical Senfe, is
whatever may be ditfolved and turn'd into Chyle, by the
Liquor of the Stomach, or the Natural Heat; Co as to be
afterwards converted into Blood, for augmenting the Body,
or repairing the continual Expence of Parts.  See FOOD,
The Word is Latin, form'd of the Verb 4Aere, to nourifh.
ALIMENTARY, ALIMENTAL, Something that relates
to Aliment, or Food. See FOOD.
The antient Phyficians hold that every Humour confifls of
two Parts ; an Alimentary, and an Excrementitious one.
ALIMENTARY EDUd, DZubUS 41imentalis, is a Name
given, by Dr. 71yJfon and fome others, to that Part of the
Body thro' which the Food paffes, from its Reception into
the Mouth, to its Exit at the Anus; including the Gula,
Stomach, and Inteflines. See DRuCTUS Alimentalis, STO-
Alimentary fDul is Sometimes alfo underflood of the
Thoracic DuG. See TnIORACIC FDUa.
ALIMENTARIX Pueri, &c. in Antiquity, were certain
Children maintained and educated by the Munificence of
the Emperors, in a fort of publick Places, not unlike our
Hofipitals. See HOSPITAL.
7lrajan was the firmc that brought up of thefe Alimen-
tary Boys.   He was imitated by Adrian.    Antoninus
Pius did the fame for a Number of Maids, at the Solli-
citation of Fauflina: And hence, in rome Medals of that
Emprefs, we read PUELLAE      PAUSTINIIANXM-
Alexander Severus did the like, at the Requeft of Mam-
mea; and the Maids thus educated were called mammea7ne
ALIMONY, ALIMbNIA, in Law, antiently fignify'd
Noutw/hAment, or Maihwenance; but in a more modern
Senfe, denotes that Portion, or Allowance which a married
Woman Cues for, upon any occafional Separation from her
Husband, wherein fhe is not charged with Elopement or
Adultery. See WIFE, DOWER, SC.
This was antiently called Rationabile Eftoverium, Rea-
fonable Maintenance, and was recoverable in the Spiritual
Court; but now only in Chancery.
ALIQUANT Part, is that which will not meafure or
divide any Number exacly, but fome Remainder will fill
be left.-Or, an Aliquant Part, is that which being taken
any Number of times, is always either greater or lefter
than the Whole. See PART, MEASURE, & C.
A Sable of Aliquant Parts of a Pound, fee under the
Thus, 5 is an Aliquant Part of rI ; for being taken
twice, it falls fhort, and when taken three times it ex-
ceeds 12.
ALIQUOT     Part, is fuch Part of any Number, or
Quantity, as will exacrly meafure it, without any Remain-
der.-Or, it is a Part, which being taken a certain Num-
ber of times, becomes equal to the Whole, or Integer. See
Thus, 3 is an Aliquot Part of t2. ; becaufe being taken
four times, it will jufl meafure it.
The Word is form'd of the Latin Aliquoties, any number
of times.
Ai' able of Aliquot Parts of a Pound, fee under the
ALKAHEST, or ALCAHEST, inChymifiry, anuniverfal
Menfiruum or Diffolvent, wherewith fome Chymiffs have
pretended adequately to refolve all Bodies into their firft
Thofe two eminent Adepts, Paracelfus afid Helmont,
exprefly declare, that there is a certain Fluid in Nature, ca-
pable of reducing all fublunary Bodies, as well homogene-
ous as mixed, into their Ens primum, or Original Matter
whereof they are compos'd ; or into an uniform equable
and potable Liquor, that will unite with Water and the
Juices of our Bodies, yet retain its feminal Virtues ; and
if mixed with it felf again, thereby be converted into pure
elementary Water.-Whence they alfo imagin'd, it would at
length reduce all Things into Water. See WATER.
This Declaration, feconded by the Afleveration of Itel-
mont, who religioufly fwears himfelfpoffeffed of the Secret,
has excited the Succeeding Chymiffs and Alchymifis to the
Purfuit of fo noble a Menffruum. Mr. Boyle was fo fond
of it, that he frankly acknowledges he had rather have
been Mafler thereof than of the Philofopher's Stone. See
Indeed, 'tis not difficult to conceive, that all Bodies
might originally arife from Come firmi Matter, which was
once in a fluid Form.-Thus, the primitive Matter of Gold
is, perhaps, nothing more than a ponderous Fluid, which
from its own Nature or a firong Attraclion between its
Parts, afterwards acquires a folid Form. See GOLD.-
And hence, there does not appear any Abfurdity in the
Notion of an universal Ens, that refolves all Bodies into
their Ens genitale.
The Alkaheft is a SubjeG that has been canvafled by an
infinite Number of Authors; as, Pantaleon, PPhilalethes,
racbenius, Ludovicus, &c.-Boerhaave fays, a Library
might be collefted out of 'em. Weidenfelt, in his Treatile
de Secretis Adeptorum, has given us all the Opinions that
have been entertained about it.
The Term Alkaheft is not peculiarly found in any Lan-
guage : Belmont declares he firfi obferved it in Paracelfus,
as a Word that was unknown before the Time of that Au-
thor, who in his fecond Book, De viribus Membroram,
treating of the Liver, has thefe Words: Eft etiam Alkahedc
liquor, magnam hepatis confervandi Fe confortandi, &c.
I' There is alfo the Liquor Alkabeft, of great efficacy in
preferving the Liver; as alfo in curing hydropical and all
" other Difeafes arifing from Diforders of that Part. If it
4 have once conquer'd its like, it becomes fuperior to all
" other hepatick Medicines; and tho the Liver it felf
were broken and diffolved, this Medicine Ihould fupply
" its Place."
'Tis this fingle PaMige of Paracelfus, that excited the fuc-
ceeding Chymifis to an Inquiry after the Alkabefi; there being
but one other indirea Expreffion about it in all his Works.
Now it being a frequent Practice with this Author to
tranfpofe the Letters of his Words, and to make ufe of Ab-
breviations, and other ways of Concealment; as in Tartar,
which he would write Sutratar; for Nitrum,     futrin,
&c. 'tis fuppofed Alkabeft may be a Word thus difguis'd.-
R                    Hence
* -

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