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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Accursed - aerometry,   pp. 21-40 PDF (18.1 MB)

Page 21

(21t )
ACCURSED, fomething that lies under a Curfe, or
under a Sentence of Excommunication. See ANATHEMA,
ACCUSATION, ACcUsATIo, in the Civil Law, the in-
tenting a criminal Affion againff any one, either in one's
own Name, or that of the Publick. See ACTION, and
By the Roman Law, there was no publick Accufer, for
publick Crimes; every private Perfon, whether interefled
in the Crime or not, might accufe, and profecute the Ac-
ctifed to Punifhment or Abfolution.
But the Accufation of private Crimes was never received,
excepting from the Mouths of thofe who were immediately
interefled in them.-None but the Husband could accurJ
his Wife of Adultery. See ADULTERY.
Indeed, it was not properly an Accufation except in pub-
lick Crimes ; in private ones it was call'd fimply A4f ion, or
intenting an Aaion, intendere A4iionem, or litem. See
Cato, the mofi innocent Perfon of his Age, had been ac-
ciifed 42 times; and abfolved 42 times. See ABSOLUTION.
When the Accufed accufes the Accufer, it is called Re-
crimination; which is not admitted till the Accufed has
been firf purg'd. See RECRIMINATION.
By the cruel Laws of the Inquifition, the Accufed is for-
ced to accufe himfelf of the Crime objeaed to him. See
It has formerly been the Cuffom in fome Parts of Europe,
where the Accufation was very heavy, either to decide it
by Combat, or at leafl to make the Accufed purge him-
felf by Oath; which, however, was not admitted, except-
ing a certain Number of his Neighbours and Acquaintance
fwore together with him. See DUEL, COMBAT, OATH,
ACCUSATIVE, in Grammar, the fourth Cafe of Nouns
that are declined. See CASE, -and NOUN.
Its Ufe may be conceived from this, That all Verbs
which exprefs Aaions that pafs from the Agent, as, to
beat, to break, &c. mufi have Subjeffs to receive thofe
Ations: for, if I beat, I muff beat Something * fo that a
Verb evidently requires after it a Noun, or Name, to be the
Subje& or Objea of the Affion exprefs'd. See VERB.
Hence, in all Languages which have Cafes, the Nouns
have a Termination which they call AccuJative; as, arno
EDeum, I love God; Cefar vicit Pompeijur, Cofar over-
came 'Pomp ey.
In Englijh, we have nothing to diffinguilh this Cafe from
the Nominative, but as we ordinarily place Words in their
natural Order, it is eafily difcover'd, the Nominative con-
flantly preceding, and the A4ccufative following the Verb.-
Thus, when we fay, the Prince loves the Princefs, and the
Frincefs loves the Prince: The Prince is the Nominative
in the firfi, and the Accufative in the lafbc; and the Prin-
cefs the Accufative in the firfi, and the Nominative in the
fecond. See NOMINATIVE.
ACEPHALUS, or AcEPIALOUS, fomething without a
Head. See HEAD.
The Word is compofed of the Privative c, and xsptam, Ca-
put, Head.
Pliny reprefents the Blemmyes as a Headlefs or Acepha-
lotus Nation. See BLEMMYES.- Acephalous Worms are
frequent. See WORM, and VERMES.
ACEPHIALUS is more frequently applied, in a figurative
Senfe, to thofe deflitute of a Leader, or Chief.
Thus, the Name Acepbali is fometimes applied to fuch
Priefis or Bilhops, as are exempted from the Difcipline and
Jurifdiction of their ordinary Bifhop or Patriarch. See Ex-
AnaftafZus the Library-Keeper, calls this Exemption
from the Jurifdiiion of a Patriarch, Autocepbalia. See PA-
We find a great Number of Canons of Councils, Capitu-
lars of Princes, W.c. againff Acephalous Clerks, &c.
In our antient Law-Books, the Term is alfo ufed for thofe
poor People who had no proper Lord; as holding nothing in
Fee, either of King, Bifhop, Baron, or other Feudal Lord.
L. Hen. I.
In Ecclefiaflical Hifiory, A4cephali frequently occurs as the
Denomination of divers Seas: Particularly, - Ix, Of thofe
who in the Affair' ofthe Council of Epbefus, refufed to follow
either St. Cyril, or Yohn of Antioch.-z0, Of certain Here-
ticks of the Vth Century,who at firfi follow'd Peter Maogus;
but afterwards abandon'd him, upon his fubfcribing to the
Council of Chalcedon; they themfelves flicking to the Er-
rors of Eutyches.-3', Of the Adherents of Severus of An-
tioch; and of all in general who refufed to admit the Council
of Chaledon.
Some will have the Word properly to denote Heftator-
and fuppofe it applied on this Occafion, by reafon they food
neuter, or dubious, hefitating about coming into the Coun-
cil: But the former Opinion is the more probable * .cepba
lous being never ufed in the latter Senfe.
In fome Writers, the  cephalouls Hereticics ar4 called
Acepalites, Acephalizce.
ACERB, ACEPtBUS, a cothpound Taffe, confifling of
four, with the Addition of a degree of Roughnefs. See
Such is the Tafle of all Fruits before they are ripe. See
The Phyficians ufually make Acerb an intermediate Sa-
vour between Acid, Auflerc, and Bitter. See A CID, Lc.
All Matters which come under this' Denomination are
Aftringent. See ASTRINGENT.
ACERRA, in Antiquity, a kind of Altar, ereded neat;
the Gate of a Perfon defunrt, among the Romans ; whereon
his Friends and Familiars daily ofer'd Incenfe, till the time
of his Burial. See ALTAR, FUNERAL, Efc.
ACETABULUM, in Antiquity, a little Vafe or Cup;
ufed at Table; to ferve up things proper for Sauce, or Sea-
foning: much after the manner of our Salts, and Vinegar-
Cruets. See VASE, and VESSEL.
Hence, Agricola, in his Treatife of Roman Meafures,
L. I. takes the Name to have been form'd from Acetumi
Vinegar; as fuppofing it principally deflin'd to ferve Vine-
gar on.
ACETABULUM is alfo ufed for a Roman Meafure, in ufd
chiefly in Medicine, for liquid Matters. See MEASURE.
The Adcetabulum contain'd a Cyathus and a half, as is
proved by Agricola, from two Verfes of Fannius; who
Ifpeaking of the Cyathus, fays, it weighs ten Drachms i and
the Oxubaphus or Acetabulum, I 5.
:Bis quinqua huncfacinet DZrachmd', fi azppndare tentes,
Oxy bap s fiet .5 quinque addantur ad 'i1as.
Binet, in his Treatife of Weights and Meafures prefix'd to
his Tranflation of Pliny, makes the Acetabiulum of Oil
weigh two Ounces and two Scruples; the Acetabulum  of
Wine, two Ounces, two Drachms, a Grain, and a third of
a Grain ; and the Acetabulum of Honey, three Ounces,
three Drachms, a Scruple, and two Siliqux. See CYATH US,
ACETABULUM, Is alfo ufed in Anatomy, for a deep Cavi-
ty, in certain Bones, appointed for the Reception of the
large Heads of other Bones, in order to their Articulation.
Thus, the Cavity of the Ifcbium, or Huckle-Bone, which
receives the Head of the Thigh-Bone, is called Acetabu-
lum, Cozyla, or Cotyloides. See ISCHIUM, FEMUR, COTY"
The Acetabulum is lined and tipp'd round with a Carti-
lage, whofe circular Margin is called Supercilium.-In its
bottom lies a large mucilaginous Gland. See MUCILAGI-
ACETABULUM is alfo ufed by Anatomiflsin the fame Senfe
with Cotyledon. See COTYLEDONES.
The Word is form'd of Acetum, Vinegar; in regard that
Fluid is commonly ufed for the Seafoning thereof.
ACETOUS, fomnething relating to A4cetum, or Vinegar.
Thus, we fay, an Acetous Tafle * caoetous Qualities, Cc.
Wine, and all vinous Liquors, are render'd Acetozis by exci-
ting their Salts, and tempering or abating their Sulphurs,
The Chymifis mention divers Aceta, or Acetous Liquors;
as, Acetum Alcalizatzm ; made of difiill'd Vinegar, with
the Addition of fome Alkaline, or Volatile Salt. See AL-
rALI.-A4aetuzm Philofophorum, a four kind of Liquor;
made by diffolving a little Butter of Antimony in a great
deal of Water. Boyle.
ACETUM, in Medicine, Uec. the fame with Vinegar; the
Properties, Ufes, and Preparation whereof, fee under the
Article VINEGAR.
The Word is pure Latin S form'd of Aceo, I am 1harp.
There are feveral Medicines in the Shops, whereof this
Liquor is the Bafis; as, Acetum  ZDifillatum, diflilI'd Vine-
gar; chiefly ufed in other Preparations for Diffolution, and
Spiritus Aceti, Spirit of Vinegar; made by drenching
Copper Filings or Spittle Dull with diflill'd Vinegar, then
evaporating it till the Fumes of the Vinegar cannot be
fmelt; the Saturation and Evaporation to be again repeateds
till the Metal be fatiated; which being then diftill'd, the
Spirit comes over.-Its Qualities and  Ufes are much the
fame with thofe of the former, only more powerful.
Acetum Rofarum, Vinegar of Rofes; made of Roe-buds
infafed in Vinegar 40 or 50 Days; the Rofes then prefs'd
out, and the Vinegar preferv'd.-It is chiefly ufed by way
of Embrocation on the Head and Temples, In the Head-ach.
After the fame manner is made Acetum £ambucinuuu
Vinegar of Elders I dcetuu Aithofatumt Viegar of Rofe-
maries, arc.    .                               T
0                       h

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