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Nature
(Thursday, November 4, 1869)

Contents,   p. 30


Page 30


30
NA TURE
                       P1 I LADELI'IIIA
  American Philosophical Society.-We select the following
extracts from the reports of the recent meetings of this Society:-
  Prof. Trego has communicated an extract from a letter from
Mr. Davidson of the Coast Survey, to Mr. D. B. Smith of
Germantown, detailing the method employed to obtain the
recent determination of longitude and the velocity of the electric
current between Cambridge and San Francisco.
  " I give you the first written news not only of our telegraph
longitude success, but of the success of my plan for determining
the time ot transmission of clock signalsroam my clock to Cambridge
and back, over 7,000 miles of wire, through 13 repeaters and a
multitude of relays. Through the liberality of the Western
Union Telegraph Company, I had two trans-continental lines
placed at my use, and last night I succeeded beautifully. My
circuit was as follows. My clock breaks the local circuit every
second, depriving the helix A of its electricity, and the magnet
of its magnetism. This relieves the armature B, which is drawn
away by a spring, and the pen C makes its record on the
revolving cylinders of the chronograph. At the same instant
the main current to Cambridge and back is broken by the
insulated prolongation of the armature at D, and the break
transmitted to Cambridge and back, through 7,000 miles of
7,000 miles.
Insulated
prolongation
of armature
Local cir-
  cult W
  Local bat-
  tery 4W
Main line.
San Fran-
cisco relay.
Earth at San
Francisco.
               C. Sending pen.  I. Receiving pen.
                   SAN. IRANCISCO CHRONOGRAPH.
 wire, to my relay E, which relieves the armature F, and the
 local circuit is broken; the helix G deprived of its electricity and
 the magnet of its magnetism, relieving the armature H, which is
 drawn away by a spring, and the pen I makes thu- record on the
 revolving cylinders of the chronograph. These two pens are on
 the same horizontal line. Our experiments show that it took
 o-87 of a second to traverse the above circuit.  I also made
 experiments through to Buffalo, Chicago, Onmaha, Cheyenne,
 Salt Lake, and Virginia, and back. All successful. As this
 experiment was not contemplated by the programme of the longi-
 tude experiments, I have the satisfaction of seeing my ingenuity
 successfully proved."
   Prof. Kirkwood has communicated through Mr. Chase a discus-
sion of the periodicity of the Sun's spots. We shall return to
this communication.
   Mr. Dubois presented a specimen and analysis of silver ore,
accompanied with the following note from the Assay Office,
United States Mint:-
   " In the Report of the British Commission on International
Coinage, lately published, we find an extract from the 7ournal des
Debats, of November 13, 1866, stating that the German assayers
had found the average fineness of French gold coins of that year
to be 898 thousandths, and a fraction. It adds that this is an
unworthy source of gain to Government, whose ambition it
should be to have the coins co-rat. The AMoni/ui, of Novem-
ber 20 (official organ) replies, that this is as near to standard as
can be expected from the defects of practical operation; and
that it is the duty of Government to prevent these 'ill-founded
criticisms.'  Our own assays, for many years, have proved a
deficiency in the French coins, averaging about one-thousandth.
The apology of the Afonittur has no just foundation.  Both
at this Mint, and at San Francisco, the gold coins are kept
close to the mark, scarcely varying the tenth of a thousandth ;
as is proved by annual assays, and by foreign reports. British
coinage is equally exact.
  "This fact affords an argument against the project of
International Coinage. If we work to goo, and France to 899
or less, and boils pass alike, the difference is against use"
DIARY
[Nov. 4, 18~
                       -4
                   THURSDA Y. NovEMBER 4.
LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On some Brazilian Plants from the neighbouta
  of the Campinas: J. Correa de Mello. On two Indian Plants: N. Dao.
  On the Occurrence of a Luminous Insect near Buenos Ayres: R. T ium
CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Discussion on Dr. Williamson's Discourse on i4
  Atomic Theory.               N
                     F;RIDA Y, NOVEMBER 5
GEOLOGISTS' ASsOCIATION, at 8.-Comparative Anatomy as applied l
  Geology: Dr. C. Carter Blake, F.G.S.
                    MONDA Y, NOVEMBER 8.
LONDON INSTITUTION, at 4.-Elementary Physics: Prof. Guthrie.
ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-President's Address. Jouraqyq
  the Yellow River: Mr. Elias.
                    TV ESDA i, NovEMBER 9.
ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Chinese Race: their Languap;
  Government, Social Institutions, and Religion: Mr. Gardner.
                  WEDNESDA Y, NOVEMBER l0.
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Australian Mesozoic Geology and PNl....
  tology: C. Moore, F.G.S.  On some Plant and Insect-beds in teW
  South Wales: C. Moore, F.G.S. Further Evidence of the Aflinity be"r
  Dinosauria and Birds: Prof. Huxley, F. R.S.  On the Dinosauria
  the Trias, with observations on the Classification of the Dinosauia:
  Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.
RoYAL MICROSCOPIC SOCIETY, at 8.-On High Power Definition, w#t4
  Illustrative Examples: Dr. G. W. Royston Pigott, F.R.A.S. On di
  Structure of the Scales of certain Insects of the Order TAysasea-
  S. J. Mclntire.
                  THIURSDA Y, NOVEMBER XI.
LONDON INSTITUTION, at 7.30. -On Architecture, or the Fine Ast of
  Building: Prof Robert Kerr.
ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Anatomy of the Aard-Wolf (Pk*k,
  cristatus: Prof. Flower, F.R.S.
LONDON MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-General Meeting at Buriq,
  House.
                  BOOKS RECEIVED
  ENGLIsH.-Chemistry: Prof Attfield (Van Voorst).-Scenery of 1 gm
and Wales: D. Mackintosh, F.G.S. (Longmans).-Practical Cthemnibt
Harcourt and Madan (Clarendon Press).-The Three Kingdoms of Nah*.
R. S. Haughton (Cassell).-Flora of Middlesex: Trimen and Dyer (UI*
wicke).-N;atural Philosophy in Easy Lessons: John Tyndall (Case-
Vegetable Physiology: Dr. Lankester (Cassell). -Our Bodies: E. .
Davidson (Cassell).-Scientific Chemistry: F. S. Barff (Groombridge),-
Science of Heat: T. A. Orme (Groombndge). -Mechanical Philosophy: IL
Wormell (Groombridge).-How Crops Grow (Macmillan).-TravelsinCena4
Africa: Mr. and Mrs. Petherick (Tmsley).-New Tracks in North Amerim
W. A. Bell (Chapman and Hall -Intelligence of Animals: E. M;74
(Cassell).-Picture Natural History (Cassell).-Gold Fields and Mineral iF.
tricts of Victoria: R. Brough Smyth (Trdibiser and Co.).-The World of de
Sea: A. Fredol (Cassell).-Prehistoric Times: Sir John Lubbock, Be*
(Williams and Norgate).-De la Rue and Co.'s Red Letter Diaries forzi*
-Natural History of British Moths: E. Newman (Tweedie).
AMERICAN. -The Mississippi Valley: J. W. Foster. - Productiial
Precious Metals: W. P. Blake.-Parsons on the Rose.-System oif
ralogy: Dana and Brush.-Guide to the Study of Insects: A. S. Pad.
(Through Trubner and Co.)
  FOREIGN.-Echinides: Cotteau et Triger (with atlas).-Ueber Batawj
Keferstein.-Protozoe Helvetica: W. A. and C. von F. Ooster.-D
tischen Functionen: Hattendorff -Leconsde Chimie: Alfred Riche-Lt
Cultur-Ingenieur: vol. ii. part 2.-Die Chinacultur auf Java: van Gork.-
Handbllch der Edelsteinkunde: Schrauf.-Die internatlonale Einida4
das metrische System: C Bopp.-Landwirthschaftliche Zoologie:
-Biblioth~que des Sciences naturelles (Zoologic): Gervais et Sava"
Erratische Bildungen im Aargau: Miihlberg.-Bergbaukunde (a tI
Lottner(posthumous).-Zur Kenntniss der Bryozoen: iihe.-Vierd
schrift f-ir offentliche Gesundheitopflege: vol. i. part is-Dictionnaie 15
nologique: Kumpf et Mothes (vols. i. iii). (Through Williams and Norpepf
Asher and Co.).
GOETHE: APHORISMS ON NATURE. By Prof. HUXLEY, FR.S. , 9
ON THE FERTILISATION OF WINTER-FLOWERING PLANTS. By A. W- .,.
      BENNETT, F.L.S. (With fllugstrai>ze .s)      . * Is fi'
PROTOPLASM AT THE ANTIPPDES    .      .      .   .
THE RECENT TOTAL F----,   I AME RC    . T T       '_...., N AW i
  - F.R.S. (--h----- tteJ. .                   .       . -
MADSEN's DANISH ANTIQVIi'IEs. By SIR J. LuBBocic, BART., F.iLA
NEWMAN'S BRITISH MotHs. By W. S. DALLAS, F.L.S (W.
     Illustratioxs)
OUIR BOOK SHELF             . .    . . .  . . .  . . .  .
SCIENCE-TEACHING IN SCHOOLS. By the REV. W. TLCKWELL  .  * -
THE LATE PROFESSOR GRAHAM. By Prof. WILLIAMSON,    F.LRS
     (With Portrait)
MEETING OF THE GERMAN NATURALISTS AND PHYSICIANS AT IMX
     BRUCK. By A GEIKIE, F.R.S..  .  . . . -
TRIASSIC DINOSAURIA. By Prof HUXLEY F.R.S.
CORRESPONDENCE:-The Suez Canal. T. LOGIN, C.E.
NOTES    ..      .  _
ASTRONOMY.-Astranomical Congress at Vienna
CHEMISTRY.-Abstracts 6f Papers by Bettendorff, Paterno,Peligot, &C
PHYSICS.-Magnus on Heat Spectra.
PHYSOLOGY.-PetPetnkofer on Cholera, &c.
SOCIETIESS ASD ACADEMIES
DIARY     . .
BOOKS RECEIVED
_ ~mjiv


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