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Hooke, Robert, 1635-1703 / Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses : with observations and inquiries thereupon
(MDCLXVII [1667])

Observ. XXXIII. Of the scales of a soal, and other fishes,   pp. 162-163

Page 162

               MI CROGR AP HI A.
of Vegetables altogether mechanical, and as necefiary, that (water and
warmth being apply'd to the bottom of the fprig of a Plant) fome of it
fhould be carried upwards into the frem, and thence diftributed into the
leaves, as that the water of the Thames covering the bottom of the Mills
at the Bridge foot of London, and by the ebbing and flowing of it, paf-
ffing ftrongly by them, fhould have fome part of it convey'd to the
Cefterns aboveand thence into feveral houfes and Cefterns up and down
the City.
  Obferv. X X X I I I. Of the Scales of a Soal, and other Fifbes.
     Aving hinted fomewhat of the fkin and covering of terrefirial Ani-
Hi mals) I fhall next add an Obfervation I made on the Ikin and Scales
of a soal, a fmall Fifh, commonly enough known 5 and here in Fifhes, as
well as other Animals, Nature follows its ufual method, framing all parts
fo, as that they are both ufefull and ornamental in all its compofures,
mingling utile and dulce together; and both thefe defigns it feems to
follow,though our unaflifled fenfes are not able to peceive them: This is
not onely manifeft in the covering of this Fifhi only, but in multitudes
others,which it would be too long to enumerate,witnefs particularly that
fmall Sand Shell, which I mention'd in the X I. Obfrrvation, and infinite
other fmall Shells and Scales, divers of which I have view'd. This {kin I
view'd, was lead from a prettylarge soal, and then expanded and dry'd,
the infide of it, when dry, to the naked eye, look'd very like a piece of
Canvafs,but the Micro/gope difcover'd that texture to be nothing elfebut
the inner ends of thofie curious Scolop'd Scales 1I I, 1, in the fecond Figure
of the X X 1. scheme, namely, the part of C G G G (of the larger repre-
fentation of a fingle Scale, in the firft Figure of the fame scheme) which
on the back fide, through an ordinary fingle Magnifying Clafs, look'd
not unlike the Tyles on an houfe.
  The outfide of it, to the naked eye, exhibited nothing more of orna-
ment, fave the ufual order of ranging the Scales into a triagonal form,
onely the edges feem'd a little to fline, the finger being rubb'd from the
tail-wards towards the head, the Scales feem'd to ftay and raze it; But
through an ordinary Magnifying glafs, it exhibited a moft curiouily
carved and adorned furface, fuch as is vifible in the fecond Figure, each
of thofe (formerly almoft imperceptible) Scales appearing much of the
fhape 1, 1, 1, that is, they were round, and protuberant, and fomewh a
fha pd like a Scolop, the whole Scale being creas d with curioufly wa
and indented ridges,with proportionable furrows between;each ofwhbw..
was terminated with a very fharp tranfparent bony fubfrancewhichlike
fo many fmall Turnpikes, feem'd to arm the edges.
  The back part K K K was the fikin into which each of there Scales
were very deeply fix d, in the curious regular order, vifible in the fecond

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