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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

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to the VrA  Edition of
C:TC'L 0oiP´1I. __/, Dn U NI  A RS
DIiCT lON A R Y ot Arts and Sciences,
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I f  b~ U W*   J
ao G, a moift, Rrotten fpot of earth, which finks, End
D A{       gives way to the weight of the body, formed of
grafi and plants putrifned by fome'fpring; frequent,
especially in Ireland.
In which fenfe, bog amounts to much the fame with what in
Ether places are called mntfes, !mar/Aes, fens, &c. See Mo-
Ireland is become infamous for bogs: they diftinguifh be-
tween a turf-bog, called alfo ried-bg, out of which turf or
peat is dug; and a quaking-bog, which will fink under a
man in the place where he flands to a confiderable depth,
and rife before and behind proportionably: underneath, is
frequently clear water, into which a perfon flips to the mid-
dle, upon breaking the furface.-Quaking-bogs frequently
turn into turf-bogs.
Every red bog is incompaffed with a deep marfhy floughy
ground, called the bounds of the bog.-Horns and ikeletons of
mooufe-deer are Sometimes found in bogs fourteen foot deep.
The inconveniencies of bogs are, that a confiderable part of
the kingdom is rendered ufelefs by them: they alfo keep
people at a diftance from each other, and thus hinder bufi-
nefs from  going forward.  They occafion the roads to be
crooked and circuitous to avoid them : they are a great de-
ftrufion to cattle, the chief commodity of Ireland; which
are encouraged by the grafs growing on the edges of the bogs
to venture in, where they are loft: they are alfo a fhelter to
tories and thieves. The fmell'and vapotur arifing from them
is accounted unwholfome, and the fogs putrid and flinking.
Add, that they corrupt the water, both as to its colour and
Bogs have alfo their uses: moft of the people in Ireland have
their firing from them; the wood being impolitickly de-
llroyed, and little pit-coal yet difcovered. The Irifh could
hardly do without fome bogs.-The natives had anciently an-
other advantage from bogs; viz. that by means of them they
were preferved from the conqueft of the Englifh: and it
feems to be from the remembrance hereof, that they frill
chufe to build near bogs.
For the origin and formation of BOGS, it is to be obferved, that
there are few places, in the northern world, but have for-
merly been as famous for them, as Ireland now is: every
wild, ill-inhabited country 'has them: the loca paluf/ria, or
phiudes, to which the antieitt'Gauls, Germans, and Britons,
retired when beaten, appear to be no other, than what we
now call bogs. The like may even ftill be found in the bar-
ren parts of Italy, as Liguria.
The true caufe of bogs, then, feems to be the want of in-
dufiry; at leaft it is certain ipduflry may remove, and
much more prevent them. There'are many bogs of late-
flanding in Ireland, formed within our own memory,
through the miferies of the times, and the defolations of ci-
vil war.-It is no wonder if a country famous for lazinefs
fhould abound with them.
To fhew how want of induftry caufes bogs, it muff be re-
membered that Ireland abounds with fprings; that thefe
fprings are dry, or nearly fo, in the fummer-time, and that
the grafs and weeds grow thick about the places where they
burif out. In the winter the fame fprings fwell again, and
run and foften and loofen the earth about them; and the
fwerd or fcurf of the earth, which confiffs of the roots of
grafs, being lifted up and made fuzzy by the water, be-
comes dried again in the fpring; and does not fall together,
'but withers in a tuft, and new grafs fprings through it;
thcb, the next winter is again lifted up: thus the fpring is
rie and more ftopt; and the fcnrf grows thicker and
thicker, till it firIf make what we call a quaking-bog: and as
'  it growhigher and dryer, and the grafs roots and other ve-
Wtables become more putrid, together with the mud and
of the water, it acquires a blacknefs, and grows into
wha   p call a t
What ponfirms tis account is, that bogs are generally found
higher than the land about them, and higheft in the middle:
Aho chief jrinqs which caufe them being commonly about
1, 0
the middle; from whence they dilate themselves by degrees,
as one would blow a bladder; but not always equally, be-
caufe they fornetimes meet with greateq obifacles on one
fide, than on the other.-Add, that if a deep trench be cut
through a bog, you will find the original fpring, and vafl:
quantities of water will run from it, and the bog fubfide;
fometimes a dozen or 15, fome even fay, 30 foot.-Laftlyj
thofe hills which have no fprings, have no bogs; and thofe
which have fprings, and want culture, are never without
them. In brief, wherever bogs are, there are great fprings:
the turf generally difcovers a vegetable fubifance; it is light,
and impervious to water, while the ground under it is very
True, there are fome quaking bogs caufed otherwife; as,
when a ifream or fpring runs through a flat; if the paffage
be not tended, it fills with weeds in fummers trees fall a-
crofs it, and dam it up; then in winter, the water flagnates
fafther and farther every year, till the whole flat be cover-
ed; next, there rifes a coarfe kind of grafs peculiar to the
bogs; it grows in tufts, and the roots confolidate together,
and yearly grow higher, in fo much as fometihies to reach
the height of a Man: this gra(s rots in winter, and falls
on the tufts, and the feed with it, which fprings up next
year, and thus makes a new addition: Sometimes the tops
of flags and grafs being interwoven on the furface of the
water, and become by degrees thicker, till they lie like a
cover on. the water; other herbs take root in it, and by a
plexus of thofe roots it becomes firong enough to bear the
weight of a man.
Another caufe of bogs is mofs, with which Ireland abounds
extremely.-That which grows in bogs is remarkable; the
light fpongy turf above-mentioned being nothing but a con-
geries of the threads of this mofs, which is fometimes in
fuch quantities, and fo tough, that the turf-fpades-cannot
cut it: in the north of Ireland they call it old wives tow;
not being much unlike flax. The turf-holes in time grow
up with it again, and all the little gutters in bogs, are gene-
rally filled with it. In reality, to this the red or turf-bogs
feem to Ije chiefly owing.
For the draining of BOGS, to render them  fit for pafture or
arable, it is not impofflible; the fame having been performed
in England, France, Germany, &c.-People commonly di-
ftinguifh between bogs which have no fall to carry away the
water from them, and thofe which have; the laft are repu-
ted drainable, the former not. But Mr. King affures, he
never obferved one bog without a fall fufficient to drain it,
nor does he believe there is any. In reality, the great objec-
tion againrft draining, is the charge, which, it is commonly
reckoned will amount to much more than would purchafe
an equal quantity of good ground: for an acre of this laft in
moft parts of Ireland is not worth above 4 s. per annum, and
14 or 15 years purchafe; fo that three pound will buy an
acre of good land; and it is very doubtful with moft, whe-
ther that fum will reduce a bog: this reafoning paes cur-
rent, and is the great impediment of this work.
To this it is anfwered, that quaking-bogs, though land be
never fo cheap, never fail to be worth draining; one trench
will drain many acres; and when dry, it is generally mea-
dow, or the beft grazing ground. Again, what is called
the bounds of a red-bog, never fails to be worth the drain-
ing; being done by one deep trench drawn round the bT;
by this cattle are kept out of the bog, and the bounds turned
into meadow.-Add, that even red-bogs might be made fitw
for grazing at a much cheaper rate than has hitherto been
done, by a proper condudt in the digging of trenches, par.
ticularly deferibed by Mr. King.-See Phi/of. Tranfad. No
170. p. 948. [eq. & No 330. P. 305. Item Nf 314. P. 59.
Plot. Nat. hid Oxford. c. 9. ß. 8I. fefq- Mortim. Huf-
band. T. r. 1. I. c. 2. p. 21.
BOOK *, a writing compofed on fome point of knowledge
by a perfon intelligent therein, for the inftrudion or amuile-
ment of the reader.
The word is formed from the Saxon boa, which comes
A                                          from

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