University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
History of Science and Technology

Page View

Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Tribunus - tything,   pp. 248-270 PDF (22.0 MB)

Page 248

[248 ]
t*At it render'd their Perfons facred, and gave them a Right
to affemble and difinifs the Senate, which were Rights the
T'ribunician Po.wer held in common with the Tribunes.
F. Iardouin thinks we fhould diflinguifh two T'ribunician
TPow-ers; the one Civil, the other Military Abut the Proof he
brings thereof is very weak. M. Spanbeim fays, his Di-
flindlion is only founded on vain Conjedures, none of which
deferve Notice.
The Learned are greatly divided as to the Month and Day
whereon the T'ribunician Power commenced: Sigonius and
'Petavigis will have it begin on the ifl of 7anuary: Othersi
as 9'erizonius, on the 5th of the Calends of J7uly: M,
7oinard on the 4th of the Ides of Djecember: Onpthriust
Cardinal Noris, F. Pagi, &c. on the Day of the Emperor's
Acceffion to the Empire; with this Difference, that F. Pdgi
takes it to be on the 5th of the Calends of the Month where-
in the Prince was proclaim'd ; and that this Day was, for this
Reafon, held facred among the Romans.
F. Hardouin thinks, that on Medals the T'ribunician Po-wer
commences on the Anniverfary of the Building. of Rome,
viz. the  1th of the Calends of May; excepting on the
Greek Medals, where it begins, in September, in regard this
Month, which began the Greek Year, was near the Time
when the Tribunician Power was firft conferr'd.
Of all thefe Sentiments the moff probable is that of
Onuphrius, &c. fetting afide the ReftriEaion of F. Pagi.
See M. Spanheim, Differt. XII. Tom. II. p. 429.
TRIBUNUS Militum or Militaris, or Military TRi-
BUNE, an Officer in the Roman Army who commanded in
chief over a Body of Forces, particularly a Legion; much
the fame with our Colonel, or the French Mefire de Camp.
'There is fome Dillinqlion of the Tribunes, into Laticlavi,
and Angufiiclavi: Thofe born of noble Families were al-
low'd, after they were made Tribunes of a Legion, to take
the Laticlavus. See LATICLAVUS.
The reft were only to wear the A,'gujliclavus, whence
Suetonius takes Care to inform us, that his Father was Y'ri-
buntis Laric/av~is of the l 1 th Legions
Over thefe Tribunes of Legions and Cohorts, there were
other Tribunes who commanded in the Abfence of the Con-
flts, and who were invefled with a Confular Authority. ---
B2Gveus will have thefe to be much the fame as the Marihals
of Fr-rce, or, at leafi, Lieutenants General.
Romulus likewife eflablifh'd a T'ibune of the Cavalry,
Trribunus Equitum, who was the fame with the Mlagifler
.Equitum under the Didators, the firi Officer after the Kings.
See MAGISrtER Eqtiitum.
The Tribunes of the Soldiery, were of an elder flanding
than thofe of the People; thofe latter being elected out
of the former.
Tarro will have it, they were call'd Tribunes, becaufe, at
firil, they were only three in Number in each Legion, when
the Legion confifled of three thoufand Men, taken out of
the three Tribes then on Foot.
In Proportion as the Legion was increas'd, the Number
of Tribunes was likewife increas'd to the Number of fix.
At firfi, the Eledion lay in the General of the Army ;
but in the Year of Rome 391, it was appointed, that the
People fhould nominate one Part, and the General another:
The latter were call'd Rufuli, from Rotilius Rufus, who
pafs'd the Law.
Thofe chofe by the People in the Comitia, were call'd
Comitiati They were indifferently either Patricians or Ple-
beians; and had the fame Marks of Honour as the Confuls
theinfelves. --- The Tribune of the Pretorian Cohorts was the
Captain of the Guards. See PRETORIAN.
The Term Triuwne was alfo apply'd to various other Offi-
cers; as the Tribuni 1irarii, Tribunes of the Treat-pry:
The Tribune of the Celeries, the Officer who commanded
them : The Tribuni Fabricarum, thofe who had the Di-
rec'ion of the making of Arms: The Tribuni Marinortm ;
Tribuni Nolanorum, Tribuni Volllptatum, mention'd in the
Yheodqflan Copde, as Intendants of the Publick Shews and
other Diverfions.
The Title Tribune was alfo given to the chief of a Tribe,
TRIBUTE, TRIBlUrUM, a Duty or Tax which one
Prince or State is oblig'd to pay to another, as a Token of
Dependance; or in Virtue of a Treaty, and as a Purchafe
of Peace.
The Romans made all the Nations they fubdu'd pay them
T'ribute. --- Mahomet laid it down as a Fundamental of his
Law, that all the World fhould pay him Tribute.
In the States of the Grand Signior, Chriftian Children are
taken in Way of Tribute, to make Janifaries. See JANI,
TRIBUTE is fometimesb alfo us'd for a perfonal Contributi-b
on, whith Princes levy on theirSubjeflasby Way of Capitation
or PollMoney. See T.Ax.
In this it differs from an Impofr, which is properly what
is laid on Merchandizes. See IMPOST.
TRIBUTARY, one who pays Titbwe to another, in ordet
to live in Peace with him, or fharc in his Proteaion, See
The Reppublic of Ragufa is Tributary to the Grand Turk,
fo is the .Cham of Little Tartary, -c.
TRICEPS, in Anatomy, a Mufcle of the Thigh, having
three Originations, and as many Infertions; and which mat
therefore, be conveniently divided into three Mufcles, alI
arifing from the Os Pubis, and inferted into the Linea Af era
of the Thigh Bone, whereof they poffefs the greatefl Part,
They Iferve as Adduaores, and draw the Thighs together.
TRICUSPIDES, in Anatomy, an Epithet given to three
Valves, fituate at the Entrance of the Vena C8ava into the
Heart. See VALVE.
They open from without inwards, fo as to let the Blood of
the Cava pafs into the Heart, but prevent its Reflux into the
Cava. See HEART;
They are thus call'd, from their Figure, which is triangu-
lar: Some fancy them to be of the Figure of three Tongues ;
and call them Triglottides.
- TRIDENT, TRIDENS, an Attribute of Neptune; being
a kind of Scepter which the Painters and Poets put in the
Hands of that God, in form of a Fork with three Teeth,
whence the Word. See SCEPTER.
The Poets fill tell us, that Neptune makes the Earth
open, whenever he firikes it with his Trident.
TRIDENT, among Mathematiciarts, is us'd for a Kind
of Parabola, by which Cartes conlruned Equations of fix
Dimenfions. See PARABOLA.
TRIEMIMERIS, a kind of Gxfura of a Latin Verfej
wherein, after the firfi Foot of the Verfe, there remains an odd
Syllable, which helps to make up the next Foot; as in this
lke latus niveum molli futius Ilyacintlo.
TRIENNIAL, an Epithet applied chiefly to Offices or
Employments, which laft for three Years.
Thus we fay, a Triennial Government: Moft regular
Monafleries have Triennial Superiors; they eled new ones at
the End of each three Years.
In 1695, an Ac  was made for Triennial Parliaments, i. e.
for Parliaments which fhould be difTolved, and the Members
be eleaed anew every three Years. Till thatTime, the King
had it in his Power to prorogue and continue his Parliaments
as long as he pleas'd. --- This opened a Door to Corruption,
which the Triennial Bill was intended to prevent.
The Triennial Aa has, from fome other Views, been fince
Repeal'd: The great Struggles ufual at Eledions, the
great Ferment it ufually puts the Nation into, the great Ex-
pences upon that Occafion, with other Confiderations, deter-
mined the Legiflature, in 1 7 1 7, to change Triennial Parlia-
ments for Septennial ones. See PARLIAMENT.
TRIENS, in Antiquity, a Term ufed for two different
Things; if A Copper Money, of the Value of one Third
of an As. ---- On one Side, it bore a _7anus's Head, and on
the other, a Water-Rat. This was the Piece of Money ufed
to be put in the Mouths of the Deceas'd, to pay Ckaron his
Fare for their Paffage into the other Life. See MON EY and
20 The Triens was alfo a drinking Cup; and that which
was ordinarily ufed. -- - It was a fourth Part of the Septary.
TRIFOLIUM or TREFOIL, any three-leaf'd Grafs: That
which is mofb ufed in Medicine, is the Trifolium, Aquaticum,
or Buck-Bean, which is very detergent, and ufed with Suc-
cefs in Scorbutic, Rheumatic and Scrophulous Habits. The
way of ufing it is generally to make a pretty firong Infufion of
the dry'd Herb, in form of Tea.
TRIGA, in Antiquity, a kind of Car, or Chariot with
three Horfes. See CAR, fe.
The Triga, in reality, was only drawn by two Horfes; fo
that it was properly a Biga : but it had, befides, a third Horfe
tied to the others, like a led Hoife, for Change. See BIGA.
Statins calls the third Horfe Equns funalis ; Hejfychiu!
p;riopa f; and Dionyflus Halicarnaffeus, s-eta'-.
We don't find the Triga on any ancient Monument; but it
was a long time in ufe among the Romans, at their Ludi
Circenfes. --- The Greeks, who firil introduced it, foon aban-
don'd it.
TRIGAMY, a third Marriage; or the State of a Perfon
who has been married three Times. See MARRIAGE.
In the ancient Church, Trigamy was only allowed to fuch
as had no Childreri by their former Marriages.
If, having Children by one or both the former, they
married again, after 40 Years of Age, they were exccluded
from Communion for five Years. --- If they where only forts
Years old, thePenance was but four Yc. rse Sce I3B i  h5,A  d
TRIGI    'PJIS, inArchitehlure, a fiece  ):i t)nltllr  rpa
ed at equal Intervals in the Doric Fri:'t See E''L 7rE,) &c.

Go up to Top of Page