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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Traducians - tribunician,   pp. 230-247 PDF (17.5 MB)

Page 230

The Enemies of Religion, even under the old Law, made
their utmolt Efforts to deprive the World of the Holy
Scriptures: In that cruel Perlecution which 4ntiochus rais'd
againft the 'ews, the Books of the Law were very folici-
toufly fought after, torn, and burnt, and fuch as kept them
put to Death; as we read in the firft Book of Maccab. cap.
IV. 59, and 6o.
Diocleflan renew'd the fame Impiety, by an Edict pub-
lifh'd in the i9th Year of his Empire, commanding all the
facred Books to be brought to the Magiflr'ates, and burnt.
Many weak Chriffians, and even fome Bifhops, overcome
by the Fear of Puninlment, carry'd in their Books to the
Perfecutors; which the Church detefling, made very livere
Laws againfi them, and gave them the infamous Name of
lIiradirores, from 51rado, 1 deliver.
As the great Pretence of the Schifim of the DonatifIs was,
that the Catholicks tolerated the 'raditores; it was decreed
in the Council of Arles, held in 314, that fuch as Should be
found guilty of having deliver'd up any of the Holy Books,
or Veils, fhould be depos'd from the Order of the Clergy,
TRADUCJANS, TRADUCIANI, a Name the Pelagians
anciently gave to the Catholicks, becaufe of their teaching,
that original Sin was tranfmitted from Father to Children,
or that it was communicated to the Children by the Father
in the Way of Generation. See ORIGINAL' Sin.
The Word is form'd of the Latin, tradux, which was
made Ufe of to exprefs that Communication; and which
comes from traduce, I tranfmit, or make pals from one to
At prefent, fome give the Appellation 7'raducian to fuch
as hold that the Souls are transmitted to the Children by the
* TRADUCTION, the 7ranflating, or turning out of one
Language into another. See TRANSLATION.
The Word is form'd of trans, beyond, and duco, I lead,
TRAFINE, among Surgeons, an Infirument, call'd alfo
l'repanum, Anabapijfon, Modious, &c. See TREPANUM and
The principal Trafic in Mufcovy, and the North, is in
Furs and Skins: The great Traffic of the Dutch in the Eaft
is in Spices: The Tfraflic of Money is moflly carry'd on at
the Exchange.
The Word is form'd from the French, Trafic, and that
from the Italian, 7raftco, which is again borrow'd from the
eozing out at Incifionsmadein theTrunk and larger Branches
of a Plant, or little Shrub, of the fame Name. SeeiGuM.
The naked Hillocks of Mount Ia in Candia, M. otourne-
fort tells us, produce a deal of the Plant Tragacantha, which
gives the Gum fpontaneoufly towards the End of .7une, and
in the following Months; when the nutritious Juice of the
Plant, thicken'd by the Heat, burfs moal of the Veffels it
is contain'd in.
This Juice coagulates in Threads, which make their Way
into the Pores of the Bark, where being pufh'd forwards by
new Juice, they get thro' the Bark, and are at length bar-
den'd in the Air, either into little Lumps, or into twilled
Pieces in Form of little Worms, more or lefs long accord,
ing to the Matter they are form'd of.
It Ihould feem too that the Contra6lion of the Fibres con-
tributes to the Exprefflion of the Gumn: Thofe fine Fibres,
like thofe of Hemp, laid bare and trampled under Foot by
Men and Horfes, contra& themselves, and facilitate the
Expreffion of the extravafated Juice.
The Plant grows alfo in feveral Places of the Levant, par-
ticularly about Alepto.
The Word is form'd of the Greek, Ire#;0c, Goat, and
gtypct, Thorn, by Reafbn the Plant is befet with Thorns
The Gum is of different Colours, and Qualities, faome
being white, other-fome greyifh, fome red, and fome almofi
black  The white is the befl. It mufl be chofen clear,
fmooth, and twilled like little Worms.
It dilfolves eafily in any aqueous Menfiruum, which it
will give the Confiftence of a Syrup to, in the fmall Propor-
tion of a Dram to a Pint. It is fmooth and foftening, and
therefore good to obtund the Acrimony of any Humours,
which makes it of Service in fuch Coughs as proceed from
Catarrhs and Defluxions of Rheum. It is alfo very
flrengthening in fome Seminal Weakneffes, and prevalent
againll the Whites in Women.
TRAGEA, in Pharmacy, a Term frequently ufed to ex-
prefs Powders grofly beat ; but now obfolete. See POWDER.
TRAGEDY, a Dramatic Poem, reprefenting fome fignal
Anion, perfornzsd by illnfirious Perfbns, and which has
frequently a fatal I{The or End. See DRAMA.
Ariftotle more Scientifically defines Tragedy, the Imitation
hf. one grave and entire Afltion, of a juf Length; 'and which,
230 ]
without the Affiflance of Narration, by railing of Terror
and Compaffion, refines and purges our lPaffions.
This Lefinition has given the Criticks fome. Perplexity;
and Corneitle declares he cannot reconcile Arifiotle with
himfelf: The Inftances Ariflotle cites, he thinks, ruin his
own Definition. He even denies the purging our 1aflions to
be the End of Iragedy.
Our Etrglhj Authors are more favourable to the Definition:
By the purging our Paffons,; they underftand not the extir.
pating them, but the reducing them to judt Bounds; for
byhewing the Miferies that attend a Subjeafion to them,
it reaches us to watch them more narrowly; and by feeing
the great Misfortunes of others, it leffiens the Senfe of our own.
Y-ragedy, in its Original, M. fledelin, obferves, was
only a Hymn fung in Honour of BZacchus, by feveral Perfons,
who, together, made a Chorus of Mufic, with Dances and
Initruments. See CHORUS. '
As this was long, and might fatigue the Singers, as well as
tire the Audience; they bethought themselves to divide the
finging-of the Chorus into feveral Parts, and to have certain
Recitations in the Intervals.
Accordingly, VIhefpis firit introduced a Perfon upon the
Stage with this View: ./Efchylns finding one Perfon infuffi-
cient, introduced a Second to entertain the Audience more
agreeably, by a kind of Dialogue: He alfi cloath'd his
Perfons more decently, and firfl put them  on the Buskin.
The Perfons who made thefe Recitations on the Scene,
were call'd Aa1ors; io that Tragedy at firfi was without
Adors. And what they thus rehearsed, being things added
to the finging of the Chorus, whereof they were no necefary
Part, were call'd ELpifodes. See EPISODE.
Sophocles found that two Perfons were not enough for the
Variety of Incidents; and accordingly introduced a Third:
And here the Greeks ieem to have flopp'd ; at leaft 'tis very
rare that they introduce four Speakers on the fiame Scene.
Itragedy and Comedy were at firI confounded with each
other; But they were afterwards feparared; and the Poets
applied themfelves to the cultivating of Tragedy, negle&iXg
Comedy. See COMEDY.
When Tragedy was got into a better Form; they changed
the Meafure of its Verfe, and endeavour'd to bring the
Aafion within the Compals of a Day, or of a Revolution of
the Sun. See UNITY.
For the feveral  Parts of Tragedy; fee ACT, SCENE,
The .Englijh received the firft Plan of their Drama from
the French; among whom it had its firff Rife towards the
End of the Reign of Charles V. under the Title of Chant-
Royal, which were Pieces in Verfe, compofed in Honour of
the Virgin, or fome of the Saints, and fung on the Stage;
call'd by the Title of Chant-Royal, becaufe the Subje& was
given by the King of the Year; or the Perfon who had bore
away the Prize the Year preceding. See CHANT.
The Humour of thefe Pieces run wonderfully among the
People, infomuch that in a little time there were form'dt
feveral Societies, who began to vie with each other: One of
thefe, to engage the Town from the refi, began to intertnix
various Incidents, or Epifodes, which they difiributed into
Ats, Scenes, and as many different Terfons as were beceffary
for the Reprefentation.
Their firfi Elay was in the 7Rourg S. Afaur; and their
Subject the Paflion of Our Saviour. The Prevot of Paris
prohibiting their continuing of it, they made Application to
f;ourt; and to render it the more favourable to them, ereated
themselves into a Fryary or Fraternity, under the Title of
Brothers of the Paffion; which Title has given fome Occafion
to fufpea them  to have been an Order of Religious, or
Friars of the Paffion.
The King, on feeing and approving fome of their Pieces,
granted them Letters of Eflablifbment in 1402: upon which
they built a Theatre; and for an Age and a Half, acted none
but grave Pieces, which they called Moralities; till the
People growing weary of them, they began to intermix
Farces or Interludes taken fronm Profane Subjecas.
This Mixture of Farce, and Religion, difplearing many;
they were re-efiablifh'd by an Arret of Parliament in 1548,
on Condition of their aaing none but profane, lawful and
decent Subjeffs,  without intermedling with any of the
Myfleries of Religion; and thus were the Brothers of the
Pafflion defpoil'd of their religious Charaaer; upon which
they mounted the Stage no more in Perfon; but brought up
a new Set of Comedians, who aated under their Direaion.
Thus was the Drama eflablifh'd; and on this Foundation
arrived in .England. In procefs of Time, as it was improvd,
it became divided into Branches, agreeable to the Prafice
of the Ancients, and  the Nature of Things, Vig. into
Tragedy and Comedy, properly fo call'd, and this laf again,
was fub-di vided into pure Comedy and Farce feile each under
its proper Head, COMEDY, STAc.

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