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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Priority - pro-prefect,   pp. 879-898 PDF (19.3 MB)


Page 879


PRI
( 879 )
fT'he Black is a faaitious Matter, made of the Stones of
Peaches and Apricots, Bones of Sheeps-feet, and Ivory;
all well burnt ; beaten, fifted, and mix'd together with
Spirit of Wine, and Sometimes only with Water.
This Black is ufually brought hither ready prepared
from Francfort on the .ain; whence our Printers call it
Francfort-Black. See B LA C .
The Oil wherewith they dilute this Black, is Nut-Oil;
which is boil'd up differently, according to the different
Works it is to be ufed in.
They ufually make three Kinds, thin, thick, and Jirong;
only differing in the degree of Codion: The Strong is
that ufed in the finefd Works, &ec.
To make the Ink, they pulverize the black Stone very
carefully, and pafs it thro' a fine Sieve; then mix it up
on a Marble with the proper Oil, by means of a Mullet;
after the fame manner as the Painters do their Colours.
Method of PEINTING from Coipper-Plates.
The Ink being prepared, they take a little Quantity of
it on a Rubber, made of Linnen Rags, firongly bound a-
bout one another; and therewith fmear the whole Face of
the Plate, as it lies on a Grate, over a Charcoal-fire.
The Plate fufficiently inked, they firie wipe it coarfiely
over with a foul Rig, then with the Palm of the left
Hand, then of the right; and, to dry the Hand, and for-
ward the wiping, rub it from time to time onsWhiting.
In wiping the Plate perfeafly clean, yet without taking
the Ink out of the Engraving, confils a good part of the
Addrefs of the Workman. The French Printers ufe no
Whiting, as being detrimental to the Colour of the Ink ;
nor do they lay the Plate on the Grate to warm, till after
inking and wiping it.
The Plate thus prepared, is laid on a thick Paper, fitted
upon the Plank of the Prefs: Over the Plate is laid the
Paper, firfi moifien'd, to receive the Impreffion; and over
the Paper, two or three Folds of Blanketing, or other
Stuff
Thus difpofed, the Arms of the Crofs are pull'd; and
by that means, the Plate with its Furniture pafs'd thro be-
tween the Rollers; which pinching very firongly, yet e-
quably, preffes the moiien'd Paper into the Strokes of the
Engraving, whence it licks out the Ink.
Some Works require being pafs'd twice thro' the Prefs,
others only once, according as the Graving is more or lefs
deep, or the greater or lefs degree of Blacknefs the Print is
defired to have.
It mull be obferv'd, that the fironger, and thicker the
Ink is, the flronger mull the Rollers pinch the Plate: This
tempts many of the Workmen to uCe a thinner Oil, in or-
der to Cave Labour; which proves prejudicial to the Im-
preffion.
The wetting of the Paper ought to be done two or three
days before printing it, to render it the more fupple and
mellow: As the Prints are drawn off, they are hung up
to dry on Lines, ESc.
Lailly, after the Number of Prints defired, have been
wrought off from the Plate; they rub it over with Oil of
Olives, to prevent its ruffing, and fet it by again*f a new
Impreffion. If the Strokes of the Graving be perceived
full of Ink harden'd therein, in the Courfe of the Print-
ing; they boil it well in a Lye, e'er the Oil be apply'd.
PRIOR, before, Something that is nearer the beginning,
than another to which it is referred. See PRIORIYY.
PRIOR, is particularly ufed for a Superior of a Convent
of Monks; or the fecond Perfon, after the Abbot. See
SuPERIoR and CONVENT.
Priors are either Clauflral, or Conventual.
Conventual PRIORs are the fame as Abbots; all the dif-
ference between them being in Name; both having the
fame Rights; and both, alike, Governours of Monafleries.
N See ABBOT.
A Claufiral PRIOR, iS he who governs the Religious of
an Abbey, or Priory, in Commendam 5 fo called, becaufe
he has Superiority in the Cloiffer, or Monaftery.  See
COMMENDAM.
His Jurifdiaion is wholly from the Abbot; and ends
Uwith the Abbot's Death, unlefs he has been eleaed by the
whole Convent. See CLAUSTRAL.
Cnventual Priors, are of two kinds, viz. Regular Con-
. Ventual Priors, who govern Religious living in Communi-
ty; and Secular-commendatary-conventual Priors.
Conventual Priors, are obliged to take up the Prieflhood
within a Year, or at moft two, from the Dates of their Pro-
vifion; in default whereof, their Benefices are declared
vacant.
Priors muft be twenty-five Years old, e'er they can go-
vern the Convent; and twenty, if the Convent be govern'd
2 lay another.
I   Gran PAIOa, is the Superior of a large Abbey, where
PRI -
reveral Superiors are required; as in the Abbeys of Cirmy
and Fecamnp.
In the Monaflery of St. Dlennis, there were antiently five
Priors; the firfi whereof was call'd the Grand Prior.  In
moft Monafieries, there is a Sub-Prior.
There are alfo Grand Priors in the Military Orders; ai
Priors of Maltha, or of St; 7ohn of jsrfalerm, &c.
PRIORITY, the Relation of fomething, confider'd as it
is before, orprior to, another; i. e. nearer to the beginning,
or the firfm. See POSTERIORITY.
The principal Modes of Priority are five, viz. in refpeft
of fl1me; as when we fay, that the Grecian Empire was
prior to the Roman; Nature, as when we fay one is prior
to two; Order, Dignity, and Caufality. Which are fum-
med up in the Technical Diflich:
Iemepore, Natura, prims Ordine, dic E' Honore;
Effeao Caufam dicimus eg prius.
PRIORITY, in Law, is an Antiquity of Tenure, in com-
parifon of another lefs antient. See TENURE.
Lao hold by Priority, is to hold of one Lord more an-
tiently, than of another; in refp2& whereof, the Tenant
isfaid to hold in Pofleriority. Se POSTER IORI TY.
The Lord of the Priority lhall have the Cuffody of tho
Body. Cromp. 7urifid.
PRIORS Aliens, certain Religious, born in France, and
Normandy; Superiours of Religious Houfes, ere&-zd for
their Country-Folks here in England.
-Thefe, Henry V. deeming no good Members for this
Land, fupprefs'd; and their Livings were afterwards given
by Henry VI. to other Monafleries, and Hioufes of Learn-
ing; but chiefly, as Stow obrerves, to the erealing of thofi
two famous Colleges, call'd the King's Colleges of Camn-
bridge, and Eaton.
PRISAGE, that Share which belongs to the King or
Admiral, out of fuch Merchandizes as are taken at Sea, as
lawful Prize; which is ufually a tenth part. See PRIZE.
Prifagium eji jis Prifas capiendi ; vel ipfe adus.
PRIsAGE of Wines, !Butlerage; a Cuitom whereby the
King challenges out of every Veff'l laden with Wine con-
taining twenty Tuns, or upwards; two Tun of Wine, the
one before, the other behind the Mafl, at his own price;
which is twenty Shillings per Tun. See DUTY;
This Cuflom varies a little, in various places : At Bof-
ton, e.gr. every Bark laden with ten Tuns of Wine, pays
Prifage.
The Term is now, almof{ grown into difufe; and in lieut
of Prifage, the Cuilom is popularly call'd fButlerage i be-
caufe 'tis the King's chief Butler that receives it. Sea
BUTLER AGE.
PRISCILLIANISTS, antient Herericks, who arofe in
Spain towards the end of the fourth Century.
The Prifcillianifis were a Branch of the Manichees and
Gnofticks. See GNOSTICKS, ESc.
We are at a lofs for their particular Tenets. St. leo
fays, they attributed to Jefus Chrifi only a fictitious or ima-
ginary Body.
Prifcillian, their Leader, was a Lay-man: He was
condemn'd with fome Bifhops his Adherents, in a Council
at Saragoja, and in another at fourdeaux; but he appeal'd
to the Emperor Maximxus, and had a hearing at Treves,
where being convi~ted of broaching Novelties, he was con-
demnn'd to death, with feveral of his Followers.
PRISE, or PRIZE, in Navigation, a Velel taken at Sea
from the Enemies of the State, or from Pirates; by a Man
of War, or a Merchant-man, having Commiflion from the
Admiral.
Veffels are look'd on as lawful Prifc, if they fight under
any other Standard, than that of the State from whom
they have their Commiflion; if they have no Charter-
Party, Invoice, or Bill of Lading a-board them; if they
be loaden with Effeals belonging to the King's Enemies, or
with Contraband Goods.
Thofe of the King's SubjecLs recover'd from the Enemy,
after having remain'd twenty-four Hours in their hands, are
deem'd Prife.
Veflrels that refufe to firike their Sails, after having been
fummon'd thereto by the King's Ships; may be confirain'd
to do it; and if they make refiflance, and fight, are lawful
Prife.
PRISE, in our Statutes, is ufed for Things taken of tho
Subjeas by the King's Pourveyors. See POURVEYOR.
Spelman defcribes Prifes to be Corn and other Provifions
taken from the Country People, at lower Rates than ordi-
nary; for the Maintenance of the King's Houflold, Garri.
fons, &   c.
-Roger de Montealto, who married the Sifler of Hugo de
.beney, claim'd the following Privileges; sviz. his Cafflo
of Rifnge cum Prifis 40 fDierum, with Prifes of 40 Days:
Which Phrafe the fame Author underfilands of the Liberty
of


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