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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Planta - polygon,   pp. 832-850 PDF (19.2 MB)

Page 832

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1L A
1     Vakcuifieres Ports_ With a pentapetaWow or five head-
ed Flower; as Maiden-Pinks, Campions, Chickweed, St.
Johns-Wort, Flax, Primrore Wood-Sorrel, &c.
210 Plants with a true blkds Ret ; as Garlick, Daffodlib
Nyacinth, Saffron, &r. See BULB.
2ZO Thofe whore Roots approa'c nearly to the bulbous Form;
ts Rower-de-luce, Cuckoo-pint, Baftard Hellebore, &c.
Zf culmiferous Plants, with a graffy Leaf, and an im-
ierfe& Flower, having a fmooth hollow jointed Stalk, with
a long fharp pointed Leaf at each Joints and the Seeds con-
tained in a chaffy Husk; as Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oatsj and
moft kinds of Grafs. See CULMIFEROUS.
24O Plants with a graffy Leaf, but not Culmiferousj with
an imperfect or fiamineous Flower; as Ruflhes, Cats-Tail,
z ;f Plants whofe Place of Growth is uncertain; chiefly
'Water-Plants, as the Water-Lilly, Milk-Wort, Moure-Tail,
For the Tranfmutation of one Species of Plants into another.
The Properties and Virtues of Plants have been obferved
by Come Naturalilfs to bear an Analogy to their Forms.-
In the Philofophical Tranfal ions, we have a Dircourfe of
Mr. Yames Pettiver, to thew, That Plants of the fame or
like Figure, have the fame or like Virtues and Ufes.-Thus,
the Umbelliferous Tribe, he obferves, have all a Carminative
Tafte and Smell, are powerful Expellers of Wind, and
therefore good in all flatulent Diforders.---The. Galleate or
Verticillate Kind are a Degree warmner, and more powerful
than the laft, and therefore may be reputed Aromatick, be-
ing proper for Nervous Diforders.-The Tetraoetalous
Kind are hot like the two former, but exert their Power in
a different Wayr, viz. by a Diuretick Volatile Salt, which
makes them of Ufe in Chronical Difeafes, Obftruffions, Ca-
tochymias, &c.
P L A N T A, In Anatomy, the loweft Part, dr Sole of the
toot of Man. See FOOT and SOLE.
P L A N T A G E N E T. in Hiftory, an Addition, or Sur-
Name, bore by many of our ancient Kings. See SURNAME,
The Ternm Plantagenet has given infinite Perplexity to the
Criticks and Antiquaries, who could never fettle its Origin
and Etymology.-'Tis allowed it firft belonged to the
Houre of Anjou, and was brought to the Throne of England
by Henry II. where his Male Pofterity preferved it till the
Time of Henry VII. a Space of above 400 Years.
fis difputed who it was that firif bore the Name. MoA
of our Engli/h Authors conclude, that our Henry II. inherited
it from his Father Geoffrey V. Earl of Anjou, Son of Fulk V.
King of yerufalem, who died in I i44.-This Geoffrey they
will have the firft of the Namne; and our Henry II. the lIfue
of Geoffrey by Maud only Daughter of Henry 1. the fecoM.d.
Yet Menage will not allow Geoffrey to have bore the Name-
and in effe& the old Annalift of .4njou, 7. Bozerdigne, never
calls him ho.-The firft, Menage adds, to whom he gives the
Appellation, is Geofrey third Son of this Geoffrey V.
Yet muft the Name be much more ancient than either (f
theb Princes, if what Skinner fays of its Origin and Ety-
mology be true.-That Author tells us, that the Houre of
Anion derived the Name from a Prince thereof, who having
kil 'd his Brother to enjoy his Principality, took to Repen-
tance, and made a Voyage to the Holy Land to expiate his
Crime; difciplining himnfelf every Night with a Rod made
of the Plant Gentt, Genita, Broom; whence he became
nick-named Planta-grengr.
Now, 'tis certain that our Geoff rey made the Tour of 7e-
rufalem; but then he did not kill his Brother; nor did he
go there out of Penance, but to affift King A4nauris his Bro-
ther.-Who then Thould this Prince of the Houfe of Anjou
be? Was it Fulk IV? 'Tis true he difpoffefs'd his elder Bro-
ther Geoffrey, and clapt him in Prifon, but did not kill himw;
nay, Bourdigne obferves, he was even releafed out of the fame
by his Son Geoffirey V. already mentioned.
Further, this Falk did make a Journey to Jerufalem, and
that, too, partly out of a penitential View; we are affured by
Bourdigne, he did it out of Apprehenfion of the Judgments
of God and eternal Damnation, for the great Effufion of
Chriflian Blood, in the many mortal Battles he had been in.
-   The Annalifk ad, that he made a fecond Voyage; but
'twas to return God Thanks for his Mercies, Con. To which
we may add, that FAA was never call'd Plantagenet f fo that
what Skinner advances appears to be a Fable.
There is another common Opinion which appears no bet-
ter founded; and 'tis this, that the Name Plantagenet was
Common to all the Princes of the Houle of Anjou, after Geof-
frey V; whereas in Fa& the Name was only given to a few;
and that, as it Iold Seem, to diftinguifh them from the reft.
Thus Bourdgne never applies it to any but the third Son of
Geofrey V? and difinguifhes him by this Appellation from
the other Princes of the fame Family.-Tho' 'tis certain
it was likewife given to the elderBrother Ilery of EnlAoad,
as before obferved.
PL ANT ARtIl S in Ahatomy, i ibclewhichhata
~eginning,'from the tack part of the external Protuber,
the Thigh-bone, and defcending a little way betwt
Geniellus and Soleus, becomes a long and flender T
which marchesby the infideof the great Tendon over
Calcis to the bottom of the Foot and expands itfelf
the Sole,utpon the Mufculus perfoiatus, to which it a ;ii"~
0ofetyj as thq Palmaris does in the Hand. See FooT,
Some reckon this among the Extenders of the Foot. See
P L A N TAT I 0 N., in the Colonies, a Spot of Ground
Which fome Planter or Perfon arrived in a new Colony,
pitches on to cultivate and till for his owti Ufe. See Co-
P L A N T I N G, in Agriculture and Gardeningi the fet.
ting of a Tree, or Plant, taken up from its former Place, irk
a new Hole or Pit proportionable to its Bulk ; throwing fref
Earth over its Root, and filling up the Ilole to the Leve
of the other Ground.   See PLANT, TRRASNSPLANTING.
PLANTING of ForeJt-Trees. See SEMINARY, TREE, &c.
PtANTING of Wall-Fruit-Trees.--After 2 Years Growth
In the Nurfery, Stone-Fruit, being firfi inoculated or graftedi
are ready for Removal; which is beft done in Odober or No-
To prepare the Soil for its new Guefl; a Hole is dug 7
foot deep; br if the Soil be not very good, the Pit is made
fhallower, and Earth rais'd above it.-With the Soil dug up;
they frequently mix either a rich Soil from elfewhere; or a
Manure, fo as the Mixture be at leaft as rich as the Soil out
of which the Plant came.
The Hole being half fill'd up with this Cofnpoft, it is
trodden down, to afford a firm Reft to the Root, all the
Eitremities whereof are cut off, and the Tree fitted to the
Wall by cutting off fuch Branches as grow direfly either
towards or fironi-wards the Wall, and leaving only the (fI
Branches, which are to be nailed to it.
This done, the Tree is fet in its Hole, as far from the
Wall as is confiftent with the Heads fpreading thereon; that
the Root may have the more room backwards, arid th4
Ho6le then fill'd up with the Conmpoft.
If the Soil be poor 'tis proper to manure round the Tree;
and in the end of February, to cover it with Fern Ir Straw.
'Twill be neceffiry to prune and nail the Tree to the
Wall, at leaf' twice or thrice every Year. See WXALL-
Fr it.
Reverfe-PLANSTING, is a Method of Planting wherein the
Ordinary Pofition of the Plant, or Shoot, is inverted ; thd
Branches being fet in the Earth, and the Rodts rear'd into
the Air.
.4gricola mentions this monfirous Way of planting, which.
he affhres us fucceeds very well in mofi, or all forts of
Fruit-Trees, Timber-Trees, &;c. foreign and domeftick.
Bradley affirms us to have feen a Lime-Tree in Holland
growing with its firft Roots in the Air, which had fhiot out
Branches in great Plenty; at the fame time that its firft
Branches were turned into Roots and fed the Tree.
The indufirious Mr. Fairchild has praffifed the famde at
home - and giveus the following Dire&ions for the Per-
forniance thereof.
Chufe a young Tree of one Shoot, of Alder, Elm, Wil-
low, or any other Tree that takes root readily by laying.
Bend the Shoot gently down till the extreme Part be in the
Earth, and fo let it remain till it has taken good Root.-
This done, dig about the firfi Root, and gently take it up
out of the Ground till the Stem be nearly upright - in which
flate fRake it up
Then prune the Roots, now er,&ed in the Air, from the
Bruifes andWounds they received in being dug up; and anoint
the pruned Part with a Cornpofition of 4 Parts of Bees-Wak,
2 of Rofin, and 2 of Turpentine, melted together and ap-
plied pretty warm.-Then prune off all the Buds or Shoots
upon the Stem, and drefs the Wounds with the fame Gonipo
fition, to prevent any collateral Shootings; and leave the reft
to Nature. See FECUNDITY.
P L A N T I N G. in Archite~ture, denotes the difpofing of
the firft Courfes of folid Stone on the Mafonry of the Foun-
dation, laid level according to the Meafures, with all the
Exafsne1 poflible. See FOUNDATrION, BUILDING, HousE?
PLASM, PLASMA, aMould,whereinany Metal, or
fuch like running Matter, which will afterward harden, is
caft. See MOULD; fee alo PLASTIC.
P L A S T E R, or P L A I S T E R, in Building, a Gompo-
fition of Lime, Sometimes with Hair, fonetimnes with Sand,
&c. to parget or cover the Nudities of a Building. See
P L A S T E R of Paris, is a Foffil-Stone, of the Nature of a
Limne-fone; ferving many Purpofes in building; and ufed
likewifie in Sculpture, to mould and make Stat*7, BadI0

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