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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Parhelium - peer,   pp. 753-772 PDF (19.6 MB)

Page 753

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TPargetiog is of various Kinds; as, I. White Lime and Hair
Mortar laid on bareWalls. 2. On bare Laths, as in partitioning
and plain Cieling. 3. Rendring the Infides of Walls or double
Partition-Walls. 4. Rough-cafting on Hearth-Laths. 5. PlaiWcerr
ing on Brick-work, in Imitation of Stone-work; and the like
upon Hearth-Laths.
PhyfiologyAMcck-Sun, a Meteor, in Form of a very bright Light,
appearing a-fide of the Sun; form'd by the Reflexion of his
Beamsin a Cloud properly pofited. See METEOR.
The Parlelia ufually accompany the Corone, or large
Crowns; are placed in the fame Circumference, and at the
fame Height. Their Coloursrefemble thofe ofthe Rain-bow;
the Red and Yellow on the Side towards the Sun; and the
Blue and Violet on theother. See RAINeow.
Tho' there are Corone Sometimes feen entire, without any
Parkelia; and Parbelia without Corona. See COkON A.
In the Year I6 9. was feenat Romea Parkelion offive Suns;
and in I 666. another at Aries of fix.
The Word is form'd from the Greek Q    juxta, near, and
1AS& Sol, Sun.
M. Mariotte accounts for the Appearance of Parhelia, from
an Infinity of little Parcels of Ice floating in the Air, which mul-
tiply the Image of the Sun, either by refradling and breaking
his Rays, and thus making him appear where he is not i or
by reflecting 'em, and erving as Mirrors. See MIRROR, SC.
The known Lhaws of Reilexion and Refraaion have given
a Handle for Geometrizing on thefe Phbnomena. and M. Ma-
riotte has determined the precife Figure of the little Icicles,
and their Situation in the Air, the Sizeof the Coroneor Circles
which accompany the TParhelia, and the Colours wherewith
they are painted, by a Geometrical Calculus.
Mr. Huygens accounts for the Formation of a Parhekiolz, in
the fame Manner, as for thofe of the Halo, vig. by ftippofing a
Number of fmall icy Cylinders,with opaque Kirnels,carriedin
the Air, neither in a perpendicular nor parallel Diredtion, but in-
clined to the Horizon in a certain Angle,nearly half a right one.
To make the EBeha of thefe Cylinders manifefi, M. Huy-
gens produced to the Academy of Paris, a glafs Cylinder a
Foot long, with an opaque Cylinder of Wood in the Middle, and
the ambient Space fili'd with Water and tranfparent Ice; which
Cylinder being expofed to the Sun, and the Eye put in the re-
quifite Situation, there were fucceflively feen all the Refradi-
ons and Refl-dions, necellary for the Phenomena of the Par-
&e/ja. See HALO.
PARIETALIA Offa, in Anatomy, the third, and fourth
Bones of the Cramium; fo called; becaufe they form the Pa-
rietes, or Sides of the Head. See CRANIUM.    ;
Their Subflance is finer and thinner than that of the Coro-
nal and Occijpital. Their Figure is fquare, their Size furpaffes
that of the other Bones of the Head; and their Situation, in
the lateral Parts, which they pofiTefs entirely.
The Sagittal Suture connects them at the upper Part ; the
Coronal joins their Fore-part to the Os Frontis ; the Lambdoidel
joins them by the Hind-tart to the Occipital Bone; and, lafily,
the fquammous Suture Joins them by the Lower-part to the
Ojp TPetrofa.
The outer Surface of thefe Bones is very fmooth and po-
lifh'd; the inner, rough and uneven; full of Impreffions, which
the Arteries of the Dura Mater have made by their continual
Pulfation before they were offified.
PARIETES, Sides, in Anatomy, a Term ufed for the In-
ofli"res, or Membranes, that flop up or clofe the hollow Parts
ofBodies, efpecially thofe, of the Heart, the Yhorax, and the
ms. See HEART, THORAX, &C.
The Parietes of the two Ventricles of the Heart are of un-
equal Strength and Thicknefs, the left exceeding the right,
becaufe of its Office, which is to force the Blood thro' all Parts
of the Body; whereas the right only drives it thro' the Lungs.
PARISH, the Precinct or Territory of a Parith Church.
SeeCmuRcic. See alfoPARocIlAL.
In the antient Church, there was one large Building in each
City, for the People to meet in; and this they call'd Pa-
ripb. But the Signification of the Word was afterwards en-
larged, and by Parijh was meant a Diocefe, or the Jurifdicqi-
on of a Bilhop, confiding of feveral Churches; unleis we will
fuppofe, as fome do, that thofe Bifhops were only Pafiors of
fingle Churches. See DIOCEsE and Bisirop.
At lea@i, the Word now retains its original Meaning.
SDu-pin obferves, that Country Parijhes had not their Ori-
gin before the IVth Century; but thofe of Cities are more an-
tient. The City of Alexandria is faid to have been the firfm
that was divided into Parijes. Baronivs fays, that in the
Time of Pope Cornelius, there were 46 Parzfhes in Rome.
The Divilion of England into Paripfes, is attributed to Ho-
vorims Archbifhop of Canterbury, in 636. Cambden reckons
9284 Parijbes in England. Chamberlayn makes, at prefent,
The Word comes from the Latin Parochia, of the Greek
.Do Cange obferves, that the Name B.OaC? U was antiently
given to the whole Territory of a Bifhop, and derives it from
Neighbourhood; becaufe the Primitive Chriflians, not daring
to affemble openly i Cities, were forced to meet fecretly in
PARI sl-Przefte; the Parfon, or Minifter who holds a Pa-
rb as a Benefice. See PARSON.
If the predial Tythes be appropriated, the Parfon is called
Redor. See RECTOR. If they be impropriated, he is call'd
Vicar. See VICAR.
PARISIS, a Money of Account ; formerly a real Money;
firuck at Paris; at the fame Time with the i-ollrnois, firuck
at Tours. See MONEY and CoIwN.
The Parzfis exceeded the Tournois by one Fourth ; fo that
the Livre or Pound eParifis was 25 Sols; and the Livre Toter-
nols 2.o. The Sois and D!Leniers, Parifis, &c. in Proportion.
PARK, an Inclofure flock'd with wild Beafs, tam SyA
veftres, quam Campeflres; fay our old Lawyers.
Crompton obferves, that a Subjea may hold a Park by Pre-
fcription, or the King's Grant, which he can't do a Foreft. See
A Park differs from a Chafe or Warren; for that a Park
muff be enclofed; if it lie open, it is a good Caufe of feizing
it into the King's Hand; as a free Chafe may be, if it be en-
clofed. Nor can the Owner have any Adfion againrf fuch A'
huntinhis Park, if it lie open. See CIIASE.
Dfu Cange refers the Invention of Parks to King Henry r.
of Evgland: But Sjelman (hews, 'tis much more antient; and
was in ufe among the Anglo Saxons.
Zozimus affures us, the antient Kings of Perfia had Parks.,
The Word is originally Celtic, where it fgnifies an Inclofuren
or Place fhut up with Walls.
PARKt is alfo ufed for a moveable Paliffade fet up in the
Fields to inclofe Sheep in to feed, during the Ni ht.
The Shepherds flitt their ParkfromrTimeto imetodung
the Ground, one Part after another.
PARK is alfo ufed for a very large Net, difpofed on the
Brink of the Sea, with only one Hole which looks towards
the Shore 5 and which becomes dry, after the Flood is gone
off; fo that the Fifh has no Way left to efcape.
PARR, in War, or Park of the Artilery, a Pofd in a Camp,
out of Cannon Shot; where the Cannon, artificial Fires, Pow-
der, and other warlike Ammunition are kept, and guarded, by
Pike-men only, to avoid all Cafualties that might happen by
Fire. Every Attack, at a Siege, hath its Park of Artillery.
PARK of Provifions, is another Place in a Camp, on the
Rear of every Regiment, which is taken up by the Sutlers,
who follow the Army with all Sorts of Provifions, and fell them
to the Soldiers.
PARLEY, a Conference with an Enemy, Ei'c. of the Freucb
Parler to fpeak, talk.
Hence to beat orj8und a Parley, is to give a Simnal for the
holding of fuch a Conference by Beat of I)rum,, or Sound of
PARLIAMENT, a Grand Aflembly, or Convocation, of
the Three Eflates of the Kingdom, viz, Lords Sjzritul , 7ords
Temporal, and Commons, fummoned to meet the King, to con-
fult of Matters relating to the Common-weal; and particularly
to enad and repeal Laws. See ESTATE.
The two Houfes of Parliament are the King's Grand Coun-
cil. See COUNCIL.
'Till the Conquefi, the great Council, confifling only of the
great Men of the Kingdom, was call'd Alagnatum Conventzes,
and Prelatcrumprocerumque Concilium. The Saxons, in their
own Tongue, call'd it Wittenagemcte, i. e. Affembly of theWife,
After the Conqueff, about the Beginning of the Reign of
K. Ed'w    1. Some fay, in the Time of Hlen. 1. it was called Par-
lermentim, q. d. Speechment, from the French, Parler, to fpeak;
tho' it Fill only confiaed of the great Men of the Nation: Till
in the Reign of Hen. II. the Commons were alfo called to fit
in Parliament: The firfd Writs Lent out to fummon them bore
Date 49 Hen. III. Anno 12I17.
Parliaments are to be fummoned, prorogued, and diffolved
by the King alone: Nor can a Parliament begin without the
King's Prefence. See KING.
At firfl new Parliaments were call'd every Year: Byi
degrees their Term grew longer. In the Time of King
Charles It. they were held a long Time with long Interrup-
tions between. Both which were found of fo ill Confequence#
that in the Beginning of the Reign of K. Wiliam, an Ad was
paffed, whereby the Term of all Parliaments was refirained
to three Sefflions, or three Years i hence call'd the T-riennial
A   SC. Since that, from other Views, the Period of Parliaments
is again, 3 Gecrgii, lengthen'd to feven Years.
A Parliament is call'd by the King'sWrit, or Letter, dirftede
to each Lord, commanding them   to appear; and, by other
Writs, diredted to the Sheriffs of each County, to fummon the
People to elea two Knights for each County, and one or two
Thoge~fes for each Borough, gc.
Anriendy, all the People had Votes in the Eledtions 5 till it
was enaded by Ben. VI. That none but Freeholders, refidinq
in the County, and who had a yearly Revenue of 4b s. fhould
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