Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
G - geneology, pp. 113-132
( "13 ) GA B G Is the feventh Letter of the Alphabet, and the fifth Confonant: But in the Alphabets of all the Oriental Languages, the Hebre'w, Phoenician, 3) Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, and even Greek, G 'tis the third Letter. See LETTER. The Hebrews call it Ghimel, or Ginzel, q. d. Camel - by reafon it refembles the Neck of that Animal: And the fame Appellation it bears in the Sarmatian, Phenician, and Chal- dee: In Syriac 'tis pronounced Gomal; in Arabec, Giim, and in Greek, Gamma. The Letter G is of the mute Kind, and cannot be any way founded without the Help of a Vowel. 'Tis form'd by the Refleclion of the Air againf: the Palate, made by the Tongue, as the Air palTes out of the Throat: Which Mar- tianus Capella expreffes thus, G piritus, cum palato; fo that the G is a palatal Letter. See LETTER, MUTE, and PALATAL. The Latins took the Liberty to drop the Letter G at the Beginnings. of Words, before an in; as in gnatus, gnofco, gnobilis, gnarrat, &c. which they ordinarily wrote, natus, nofco, nobilis, &c. They alfo frequently changed it into C, as Gamelus, into Camelus; Grogulus, Graculus; . kingentum, quincentum, &c. Sometimes it is put inflead of N, before a C, and another G; as Agchifes, Agcora, Agguilla, &c. for An- chifes, Ancora, Anguilla, &c. Inflead of PP; as Magilia, for .Mapilia, &c. G is alfo ufed inflead of 2, and t inflead of G, as Anquina, Angina, Anguina, &c. Inflead of R, as AXqagium, for Aquarium; A-gger, Arger, &c. And inrfead of S, as Spargo, Jparfi, fparfhm ; or, rather, it is retrench'd from thofe laft Words, to avoid the Cacophony of fpargJ7, or fparcfi. G, is alfo put for C; as Cneius, for Gneius; Caius, for Gaius; Gaeta, for Caieta: for V, as figere, for fivere. The Northern People frequently change the G into V, or 1W; as in Gallus, Wallus, Gallia, Wallia, Vallia, &c. For in this Inflance it muft not be faid that the French have changed the W into G; by reafon they wrote Gallus long before Wallus, or Wallia were known; as appears from all the antient Roman and Greek Writers. And yet, 'tis equally true, that the French change the W of the Northern Nations, and the V Confonant into G; as gillielmus, William, into Guillaume,; Wulphilas, into Guli philas; lVafco, into Gafcon, &c. It may be added, that the antient Gauls, and Celte changed the 1 or v of the primitive Language into G: Accordingly, in the Bas Breton they fill fay gouin, of 3a1 Wine, from Af, by changing the latter s into I. . Dionzed. L. II. de Litera, calls G, a new Letter: His Reafon was, that the Romans had not introduc'd it before the firfi Punic War; as appears from the Rofcral Column, ere&ed by C. Duilius, on which we every where find a C in lieu of G. It was Sp. Carvilius, who firfi diflinguifh'd be- tween thofe two Lefters; and invented the Figure of the G: as we are affured by 2'erentius Scaurus. The C ferved very well for G; it being the third Letter of the Latin Alpha- i bet, as the g or . was of the Greek. The G is found inflead of C in feveral Medals: Vaillant Num. Imperat. i: I. p. . M. Reger produces a Medal of the Familia Ogulnia, where GAR is read inflead of CAR, which is on thofe of M. Patin. But the C is more frequently feen on Medals, in lieu of G; as AUCUSTALIS CALLAECIA CARTACINENCES, &c. for AUGU- STALIS, &c. Not that the Pronunciation of thofe Words was alter'd; but only that the G was unartfully or negligently cut s by the Workmen. As is the Cafe in divers Infcriptions of the iEaftern Empire; where AUC, AUCC, AUCCC, are fre- Af quently found for AUG, &c. The Form of our G is taken from that of the Latins, who borrowed it from the Greeks; the latin G being cer- iM tainly a Corruption of the Greek Gamma r, as might eafily be 1hewn, had our Printers all the Charaaers and Forms of this Letter, which we meet withal in the Greek and La- tin MSS. thro' which the Letter pafs'd from r to G. As to the Gamma of the Greeks, 'tis manifefily the I Ghimrnel of the Hebrews, or Samaritans. All the Dif- ference between the Gamma and Ghimel confifls in this, that the one is turn'd to the Right, and the other to the Left, according to the different manners of writing and reading, which obtain'd among thofe different Nations: fo that all the pains Salmarius has taken on Solinus, to prove that the G was derived from Greek Kappa, is loil. G has alfo been us'd as a Numeral Letter, fignifying 400, according to the Verfe, G Quadringentos demonfirativa tenebit. When a Dalh was added a-top the G, it fignify'd forty thoufand. See A. G is alfo us'd in Mufic, to fignify one of the Clefs. See C LEF. G is the Clef of the highef Part, call'd the l(eble, or Alt. See TREBLE. GABBARA, a Name the Egyptians gave the dead Bd- dies, which they kept by them, inflead of burying them. That People, out of a Cufilom which they had receiv'd from their Anceffors, and which arofe in fome meafure front the Difpofition of their Country, which is expofed to the Inundations of the Nile; us'd to wrap up the Bodies of Per- fons of Piety and Eminence, particularly thofe of Saints, and Martyrs, in a great Number of linen Cloths, with Balms, and Spices; and inflead of interring them, preferved them in their Houfes: thinking, that thereby they did them much more Honour. And there, St. Auguftin tells us, were what they call'd Gabaras. Sermon CXX. De diverlis, c. 1z. Pliny makes mention of the fame thing, I. VII. c. z6. where he relates, that in the time of Claudius a Gabbara was brought from Arabia, almofi ten Foot long. Fa. iardouin imagines, that Pliny here took the Word for a proper Name; and accordingly fearches in iacitus, for one Abbarus, a King of Arabia: But Hardouin himfelf is not of that Opinion; taking the Word to be rather the Vl:Yj Ghibbor, of the Hebrews; or :X:Z3 Ghabbar, of the Ara- bians; and to fignify a Gyant. But the Jefuite Rofweyd has given us a much better Account in his learned Notes, on the Life of St. Anthony, c. 7 - and in his Onomafticon, under the Word Gabbara; where he Ihews that we meet with both Gabbara, Gab- bares, Gabarus, and Gabbarus; and that they all fignify a Body embalm'd; which he proves from the Teftimonies of Cicero, 7'u/cul. Queft.; of Pompon. Aela, L. I. c. 9. ; of Sextus Empiricus, L. III.; Pyrrbon Hypothef. c. 24.; of Lucian, de Lutau; of CoripPus, L. III. De funere 7u- fliniani; of St. Auguftin, CaSFan, Damafcenus, &c. See MUMMY. The Word is Arabic, Syriac, and Hebrew, form'd of '1:2 Gaber, a Man. GABEL, or GABELLE, in the French Cuftoms, a Duty or Impofition on Salt. See SALT. The Gabelles is let out to Farm; and make the fecond Article in the King's Revenue. See DUTY, FARM, &C. There are three Farms of Gabels; the firf'r comprehends the greatef Part of the Kingdom: The 2d is that of the Lyonnois and Languedoc; and the 3d that of 5Dauphine and Provence. There are feveral Provinces exempt from the Gabel; having purchased the Privilege of Henry II. This Duty is faid to have had its Rife in France, in r286. under Philip the Fair. Philip the Long took a Double per Livre on Salt, by an Edid in I331 5 which he promris'd toa remit when he was delivet'd from his Enemies; and which he did accordingly in 1345. King j7ohnrefum'd it in I35 5; and it was granted the Dauphin in I 35 8, to ranfom King 'ohn. Charles V. made it perpetual. Charles VII. rais'd it to fix Deniers: Louis XI. to twelve; and Francis I. to e4; Livres per Muid. And it has been confiderably augmented fince. Philip de Valois firil efablifh'd Granaries and Of- ficers of the Gabelles, and prohibited any Perfons from fel- ling Salt: From which time the whole Commerce of Salt, for the Inland Confumption, has lain wholly in the King's Hands, who fells and difiributes every Grain thereof by his Farmers, and Officers created for the purpofe. The Produce of this Impoft is fo confiderable, that it is; computed to make one Fourth of the whole Revenue of the Kingdom; and yields the Crown as much as all the Mines of Peru, Chilly Potofi, and the reft of America does the Spaniards. Etymologifis are extremely divided as to the Origin of the Word. Some derive it from the Hebrew Gab, a Pre. fent; others from 7Zp to deliver; others from Fn7? Kab- balah, Receipt; others fromn Ghauel, or Garbe, unjufi Law, others from the corrupt latin Gabella, or Gablum, Tribute.- GABEL is alfo us'd in fome of our antient Writers, for any fort of Tax, or Impofition; As Gabel Of Wines, of Silks, g See DVTY. z Ff . GABi- G.
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