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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Epacts - equinox,   pp. 319-338 PDF (18.2 MB)

Page 319

'he  Valentinia  S hold  to have been
ty Years of our Saviour's private
Ionnologv. the Exceles of the Solar
Month above the Lunar Synodical Month; and of the Solar
Year above the Lunar Year, or i2 Synodical Months: Or
of feveral Solar Months, above as many Synodical Months;
and feveral Solar Years above as many Dozens of Synodical
Whence, the Epatis are either Annual or Menfirual.
Menfirual EPACTS, are the Excefies of the Civil, or
Calendar Month, above the Lunar Month. See MONTH.
Suppofe, e. gr. it were New Moon on the firff Day of
7anuary: Since the Lunar Month is 29 Days I2 h 443 ";
and the Month of 7anuary. contains 31 Days: The Men-
flrual Spa fit is i Day I Ih I5 57'.
Annual EPAcTs, are the Exce11es of the Solar Year
above the Lunar. See YEAR.
Hence, as the 7ulian Year is 365 Days 6 Hours, and
the Julian Lunar Year 354 Days 8 h 48' 38"; the& an-
nual Epad will be io Days I2h ii' 22z '; that is, nearly,
ii Days. Confequently, the Epaft of 2 Years, is 22 Days;
of 3 Years, 33 Days ; or rather 3, fince 30 Days make
an Embolifmic, or Intercalary Month. See EMBOLISMIC.
Thus,the EpaH of 4 Years are 14 Days, and fo of the refd:
And thus, every igth Year, the EpaG7 becomes 30 or o ;
confequently the 0oth Year the Epat7 is II again: And
fo the Cycle of Epaffs, expires with the Golden Number,
or Lunar Cycle of i9 Years, and begins again with the
fame, as in the following Table.
GoNudmb-Elats.  Gold. Ep a     Gold. E
Num      p     Numb.     a     Numb. Epafi.
I      XI      7     XVII     13   XXIII
2     XXII     8   XXVIII     14     IV
3      III     9      IX      I5     XV
4     XIV      10     XX      i6    XXVI
5    XXV       I][     I      I7    VIll
6      VI      It     XII     is    XIX
_______    I19  XXX
Again, as the New Moons are the fame, that is, fall
on the fame Day every I9 Years, fo the Difference be-
tween the Lunar and Solar Year, is the fame every i9
Years. And becaufe the faid Difference is always to be
added to the Lunar Year, 'in Order to adjuft, or make it
equal to the Solar Year ; hence the faid Difference re-
fpetirely belonging to each Year of the Moon's Cycle, is
called the Epafc of the faid Sear, that is, the Number
to be added to the faid Year to make it equal to the Solar
Year; The Word being form'd from the Greek, Ez*,
induco, intercalo.
Upon this mutual Refpecf, between the Cycle of the
Moon, and the Cycle of the Epafas, is founded this Rule
for findina the Ejpaa belonging to any Year of the Moon's
Cycle. Multiply the Year given of the Moon's Cycle into
-I I  if the Produce be lefs than 30, it is the Epai fought
if the Produa be greater than 30, divide it by 3o, and
the Remainder of the Dividend is the Eaa :    For In-
fance, I would know the Epjay  for the Year 17Iz, which
is the third Year of the Moon's Cycle.  Wherefore 3 it
the Epad7 for 1712 : For II X 3 '33, and 33 being di.
vided by 30, there is left 3 of the Dividend for the
Epaai.   See CYCLE.
By Help of the Epat7 may be found what Day of an)
Month in any Year the New Moon falls on, thus:    T(
the Number of the Month, from March inclufively, ads
the Epat7 of the Year given; if the Sum be le s that
30, fubflra& it out of 30; if greater, fubffrad it out o
60; and the Remainder will te the Day, whereon the
New Moon will fall.
If the New Moon be fought for in the Month of 7a
tiuary or March, then nothing is to be added to the
Epafi; if for February or April, then only I is to be added
For Example: I would know what Day of Decembej
the New Moon was on A. D. 1711, the Epaaf whereof id
X2. By the aforefaid Rule, I find it will be December the
2Sth; for 22 +    I    -32., and 6o-32 z 8. See MOON
The Day whereon the New Moon falls, 'being thus found
it is eafy to infer from thence what the Age of the Moon
is on any Day given.
However, there is a peculiar Rule commonly made ufi
of to this Purpofe, which is this: Add the Epav of the
Year, the Number of the Month, from March inclufively;
and the given Day of the Month all into one Sum, which
lf it be lefs than 3o, 1hews the Age of the Moon; if it
be greater than 30, divide it by So, and the Remainder
of the Dividend mhews the Age of the Moon, or how
i many Days it is from the lafi New Moon; This Method
will never err a whole Day.
For Inflance: What was the Age of the. Moon on,
!December 31 fly A D. I 7II ? By this Rule, I find,
that the Moon will then be three Days old; that isj it
will then be three Days from  the lafi new Moon. For,
2z+ ±   O+ 3i = 63, and 63 being divided by 3o, there
will remain of the Dividend, 3. And this exactly agrees
to the other foregoing Rule, whereby it was found that
the New Moon was on December z8. 171'.
It mufl be obferved, that as the Cycle of i9 Years,
anticipates the new Moons by one Day in 3;Iz Years;
the fame Cycle of   ,pa s will not always hold: The
Moon's Anticipation leffening the feveral E~pat(s by one,
every 312 Years.
To have the Epa s, therefore, point out the New Moons
perpetually; that Epaa given in the Calendar is not fuf-
ficient; but all the 30, Epass fhould be bclowed through-
out the whole Year, that the Calendar may exhibit all
the Cycles of Ejpa~s. See CALENDAR.
And, again, that as in 30o Gregorian Years, there is
one Bifextile Year dropp'd ; the New Moons are thus
thrown on the following Day. Confequently, by the Moon's
pofl-pofition  there is one added to every Epatl. See
EPANORTHOSIS, in Rhetoric, a Figure, whereby the
Orator revokes and correcfs fomething before alledg'd, as
too weak; and adds fomething fironger, and more con-
formable to the Paffion he is agitated by. See CoR-
Such, e. gr, is that of Cicero for Caelills: 0 stultitia !
Stultitiam  ne dicam, an Inpudentiam Singularem. Oh
Folly! Folly miall 1 call it, or rather intolerable Impu-
dence ? And in the firfil Catalinarian5: Kuamnquam quid
loquor ! Me vit W11a res frangat ? 7Au ut unquam   te
corrigas ? <T' sut ullam fugam meditere ? Iu ut ullum;
exilium cogites?  Utinam  tibi ijtam Mentem 2)ii Im-
mortales donarent.
Thus alfo Tlerence, in the hIeautolztimorumenos, in-
troduces his old Man Mendemus, faying,
Filium Unicum Adolefcentulum
Habeo. A  ! quid dixi habere me? Imo habui, Cb'reme,
Nunc habeam nec ne, incertum eft.
The Word is Greek, es7mvPon0s, form'd of o, Right,
Straight, whence CpgD'e> I lraighten, av't7.'U, s=PoSw-
I redrefs, firaighten, correi7, and e      Corre~tion.
The Latins call it Corredio, and Frmendatio.
EPAULE, or ESPAULE, in Fortification, the Shnoulder
of the Baffion; or the Angle made by the Face and Flank;
whence that Angle is ofteu called the Angle of the Epaule.
The Word is pure French, and literally fignifies Sho'lider.
EPAULEMENT, in Fortification, a Side-Work haflily
thrown up, to cover the Canon, or the Men,
It is made either of Earth thrown up, of flags of
Earth, Gabions, or of Fafcines and Earth, of which lat-
ter make, the EPpanlements of the Places of Arms, for
the Cavalry, behind the Trenches are.
EPAULEMENT, is alfo ufed for a Demi-Baffion, confidfing
of a Face and Flank, placed at the Point of a Horn- or
- Crown-Work. Alfo, for a little Flank, added to the Sides
of Horn-Work, to defend them  when too lonfr. Alfo for
the Redoubts made on a right Line, to fortine it. And,
laffly, for a Square Orillon, which is a Mafs of Earth almoft
fquare, faced and lined with a Wali, and defigned to
cover the Canon of a Cafement.
EPENTHESIS, in Grammar, the Addition, or Infer-
tion of a Letter, whether a Vowel, or Confonant, in the
Middle of a Word; as Relligio for Religio. See FiGURE.
The Word is Greek, AVsioiw    form'd of 6*, &' and
X Siu, q. d. m6773nwp, inyfero, immitto.
EPHA, a dry Meafure in Ufe among the Ifebrew.r.
The Epha was the moll ordinary Meafure they ufed;
and that whereby the refi were regulated. 'Tis commonly
r fuppofed that the Elpha, reduced to Roman Alodius,
contain'd four Modii and a half. Now the Roman Modi us'
of Grains, or Flower, contain'd 20 Librae, or Pounds;
confequently the Epha weigh'd 96 Pounds. Dr. Arbuthnor
reduces theEpha to 3 Pecks, 3 Pints, Evg?.
lThe Hofpitality of Gideon is prais'd for baking an
Epha of Flower for a fingle Angel.  Which might tave.
erved 45 Men a whole Day; thie ufual Portion allow'd
the Workmen being two Pound of Bread per Diem.
EPHEMERA, in       Medicine, an Epithet applied to
fomething that only lafts one Day; particularly to a
Fever, which terminates in the Cornpafs of a Dayi, i. e;
to an Accefs of a    Fever which returns no    more,
called by Galen, eplyfrg  i     Febris Ehemoer, and,
alto fDiaria.  See FEVLa.

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