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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

(1728)

Epacts - equinox, pp. 319-338 PDF (18.2 MB)

Page 319

3'19]I 'he Valentinia S hold to have been ty Years of our Saviour's private NIAN. Ionnologv. the Exceles of the Solar Month above the Lunar Synodical Month; and of the Solar Year above the Lunar Year, or i2 Synodical Months: Or of feveral Solar Months, above as many Synodical Months; and feveral Solar Years above as many Dozens of Synodical Months. Whence, the Epatis are either Annual or Menfirual. Menfirual EPACTS, are the Excefies of the Civil, or Calendar Month, above the Lunar Month. See MONTH. Suppofe, e. gr. it were New Moon on the firff Day of 7anuary: Since the Lunar Month is 29 Days I2 h 443 "; and the Month of 7anuary. contains 31 Days: The Men- flrual Spa fit is i Day I Ih I5 57'. Annual EPAcTs, are the Exce11es of the Solar Year above the Lunar. See YEAR. Hence, as the 7ulian Year is 365 Days 6 Hours, and the Julian Lunar Year 354 Days 8 h 48' 38"; the& an- nual Epad will be io Days I2h ii' 22z '; that is, nearly, ii Days. Confequently, the Epaft of 2 Years, is 22 Days; of 3 Years, 33 Days ; or rather 3, fince 30 Days make an Embolifmic, or Intercalary Month. See EMBOLISMIC. Thus,the EpaH of 4 Years are 14 Days, and fo of the refd: And thus, every igth Year, the EpaG7 becomes 30 or o ; confequently the 0oth Year the Epat7 is II again: And fo the Cycle of Epaffs, expires with the Golden Number, or Lunar Cycle of i9 Years, and begins again with the fame, as in the following Table. GoNudmb-Elats. Gold. Ep a Gold. E Num p Numb. a Numb. Epafi. I XI 7 XVII 13 XXIII 2 XXII 8 XXVIII 14 IV 3 III 9 IX I5 XV 4 XIV 10 XX i6 XXVI 5 XXV I][ I I7 VIll 6 VI It XII is XIX _______ I19 XXX Again, as the New Moons are the fame, that is, fall on the fame Day every I9 Years, fo the Difference be- tween the Lunar and Solar Year, is the fame every i9 Years. And becaufe the faid Difference is always to be added to the Lunar Year, 'in Order to adjuft, or make it equal to the Solar Year ; hence the faid Difference re- fpetirely belonging to each Year of the Moon's Cycle, is called the Epafc of the faid Sear, that is, the Number to be added to the faid Year to make it equal to the Solar Year; The Word being form'd from the Greek, Ez*, induco, intercalo. Upon this mutual Refpecf, between the Cycle of the Moon, and the Cycle of the Epafas, is founded this Rule for findina the Ejpaa belonging to any Year of the Moon's Cycle. Multiply the Year given of the Moon's Cycle into -I I if the Produce be lefs than 30, it is the Epai fought if the Produa be greater than 30, divide it by 3o, and the Remainder of the Dividend is the Eaa : For In- fance, I would know the Epjay for the Year 17Iz, which is the third Year of the Moon's Cycle. Wherefore 3 it the Epad7 for 1712 : For II X 3 '33, and 33 being di. vided by 30, there is left 3 of the Dividend for the Epaai. See CYCLE. By Help of the Epat7 may be found what Day of an) Month in any Year the New Moon falls on, thus: T( the Number of the Month, from March inclufively, ads the Epat7 of the Year given; if the Sum be le s that 30, fubflra& it out of 30; if greater, fubffrad it out o 60; and the Remainder will te the Day, whereon the New Moon will fall. If the New Moon be fought for in the Month of 7a tiuary or March, then nothing is to be added to the Epafi; if for February or April, then only I is to be added For Example: I would know what Day of Decembej the New Moon was on A. D. 1711, the Epaaf whereof id X2. By the aforefaid Rule, I find it will be December the 2Sth; for 22 + I -32., and 6o-32 z 8. See MOON The Day whereon the New Moon falls, 'being thus found it is eafy to infer from thence what the Age of the Moon is on any Day given. However, there is a peculiar Rule commonly made ufi of to this Purpofe, which is this: Add the Epav of the Year, the Number of the Month, from March inclufively; and the given Day of the Month all into one Sum, which lf it be lefs than 3o, 1hews the Age of the Moon; if it be greater than 30, divide it by So, and the Remainder of the Dividend mhews the Age of the Moon, or how i many Days it is from the lafi New Moon; This Method will never err a whole Day. For Inflance: What was the Age of the. Moon on, !December 31 fly A D. I 7II ? By this Rule, I find, that the Moon will then be three Days old; that isj it will then be three Days from the lafi new Moon. For, 2z+ ± O+ 3i = 63, and 63 being divided by 3o, there will remain of the Dividend, 3. And this exactly agrees to the other foregoing Rule, whereby it was found that the New Moon was on December z8. 171'. It mufl be obferved, that as the Cycle of i9 Years, anticipates the new Moons by one Day in 3;Iz Years; the fame Cycle of ,pa s will not always hold: The Moon's Anticipation leffening the feveral E~pat(s by one, every 312 Years. To have the Epa s, therefore, point out the New Moons perpetually; that Epaa given in the Calendar is not fuf- ficient; but all the 30, Epass fhould be bclowed through- out the whole Year, that the Calendar may exhibit all the Cycles of Ejpa~s. See CALENDAR. And, again, that as in 30o Gregorian Years, there is one Bifextile Year dropp'd ; the New Moons are thus thrown on the following Day. Confequently, by the Moon's pofl-pofition there is one added to every Epatl. See GR EGORI AN. EPANORTHOSIS, in Rhetoric, a Figure, whereby the Orator revokes and correcfs fomething before alledg'd, as too weak; and adds fomething fironger, and more con- formable to the Paffion he is agitated by. See CoR- RECTION. Such, e. gr, is that of Cicero for Caelills: 0 stultitia ! Stultitiam ne dicam, an Inpudentiam Singularem. Oh Folly! Folly miall 1 call it, or rather intolerable Impu- dence ? And in the firfil Catalinarian5: Kuamnquam quid loquor ! Me vit W11a res frangat ? 7Au ut unquam te corrigas ? <T' sut ullam fugam meditere ? Iu ut ullum; exilium cogites? Utinam tibi ijtam Mentem 2)ii Im- mortales donarent. Thus alfo Tlerence, in the hIeautolztimorumenos, in- troduces his old Man Mendemus, faying, Filium Unicum Adolefcentulum Habeo. A ! quid dixi habere me? Imo habui, Cb'reme, Nunc habeam nec ne, incertum eft. The Word is Greek, es7mvPon0s, form'd of o, Right, Straight, whence CpgD'e> I lraighten, av't7.'U, s=PoSw- I redrefs, firaighten, correi7, and e Corre~tion. The Latins call it Corredio, and Frmendatio. EPAULE, or ESPAULE, in Fortification, the Shnoulder of the Baffion; or the Angle made by the Face and Flank; whence that Angle is ofteu called the Angle of the Epaule. See BASTION and SHOULDER. The Word is pure French, and literally fignifies Sho'lider. EPAULEMENT, in Fortification, a Side-Work haflily thrown up, to cover the Canon, or the Men, It is made either of Earth thrown up, of flags of Earth, Gabions, or of Fafcines and Earth, of which lat- ter make, the EPpanlements of the Places of Arms, for the Cavalry, behind the Trenches are. EPAULEMENT, is alfo ufed for a Demi-Baffion, confidfing of a Face and Flank, placed at the Point of a Horn- or - Crown-Work. Alfo, for a little Flank, added to the Sides of Horn-Work, to defend them when too lonfr. Alfo for the Redoubts made on a right Line, to fortine it. And, laffly, for a Square Orillon, which is a Mafs of Earth almoft fquare, faced and lined with a Wali, and defigned to cover the Canon of a Cafement. EPENTHESIS, in Grammar, the Addition, or Infer- tion of a Letter, whether a Vowel, or Confonant, in the Middle of a Word; as Relligio for Religio. See FiGURE. The Word is Greek, AVsioiw form'd of 6*, &' and X Siu, q. d. m6773nwp, inyfero, immitto. EPHA, a dry Meafure in Ufe among the Ifebrew.r. , See MEASURE. The Epha was the moll ordinary Meafure they ufed; and that whereby the refi were regulated. 'Tis commonly r fuppofed that the Elpha, reduced to Roman Alodius, contain'd four Modii and a half. Now the Roman Modi us' of Grains, or Flower, contain'd 20 Librae, or Pounds; confequently the Epha weigh'd 96 Pounds. Dr. Arbuthnor reduces theEpha to 3 Pecks, 3 Pints, Evg?. lThe Hofpitality of Gideon is prais'd for baking an Epha of Flower for a fingle Angel. Which might tave. erved 45 Men a whole Day; thie ufual Portion allow'd the Workmen being two Pound of Bread per Diem. EPHEMERA, in Medicine, an Epithet applied to fomething that only lafts one Day; particularly to a Fever, which terminates in the Cornpafs of a Dayi, i. e; to an Accefs of a Fever which returns no more, called by Galen, eplyfrg i Febris Ehemoer, and, alto fDiaria. See FEVLa. Tht EI A EPH to

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