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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Channel - chorus,   pp. 193-212 PDF (19.1 MB)

Page 193

^  . r  1
e   t& 0 I
'\ .    -
ofe two Quantities a and b. Since they may be ci-
ote a b or ba,; 'tis evident their Chages are 2-
'. i. Suppofe the Quantities a h c: their Changes
will be as in the Margin; as is evidentby combining
c firfl with a b, then with b a; and hence the Num-
ber of Changes arifes 3. 2. I -6. If the Quan-
tities be 4, each may be combin'd four ways with
each Order of three; whence their Number of
Changes arifes 6. 4= 4. 3 2 1. = 2 4. Wherefore,
the Number of Quantities fuppos'd in the Number
of Changes, will be n n-i. 12-2. n-3. nl-4Sc.
Same Quantity occur twice, the Cbanige of 2 will be
buof 3 bab aibb, b ch of 4 cbab, bcab, babc.
us the Number of Changes in the firfil Cafe will be
I: . I. in the fecond, 3 =, 3. 2. I,: 2. I ; in
T1 I 2-A. 2. 2. T I 2. T. .
If a fifth Letter be added, in each Series of four Quan-
tities, it will beget five Changes, whence the Number of
all the Changes will be 60 =, 5. 4, 3. 2. I,: 2. I. Hence
Changes will ben. n-I. n-i. 2n-3 In-4       c-
IFrom thefe fpecial Formukel may be collected a general
one, viz. if n be the Number of Quantities, and m the
Number which {hews how oft the fame Quantity occurs;
we Jhall have (n, n -.fln-2. n -3. n -4. n- 5.n
6. n -7. n -8. n - 9 WC.) : In -  I m-2. In- 3. m
-4. Fec.) The Series being to be coutinu'd, till the con-
´tinual Subflraaion of Unity from n and m leave o. After
the fame manner we may proceed further, till putting n
for the Number of Quantities, and .1, m, r, &c. for the
Number that fhews how oft any of them is repeated, we
arrive at an univerfal Form, (n  - I . n-z. 2-3. n1-4.
52-~n - 6. -   n7 n - 8. Sc.)  11I.I- 2.I- 3.
-4-1-5. &c.
Su pofe, for Inflance, n = 6, 1  3 r  o. The Num-
ber of Changes will be (6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1): 3. 2. I. 3 2 I )-(6.
5. 4) ? 3 - 2 (- 2- 5. 2-2  O.
Hence, fuppofe thirteen Perfons at a Table, if it be re-
quir'd how oft they may change Places, we (hall find the
Number 13.12..II. = 6227020800.
- In this manner may all the pcjrible A4nagrams of any
Word be found in all Languages, and that without any
pofe, v. g. it were requir'd to find the Ana-
e Word Amor, the Number of Changes will
earn   rmoa    mare    aro m
aom    mroa    mao r   aorm
ameo   monora  -      -  a  omr
m oar   raom
roma            c ora m  ramo
orma    rmaeo   oarm    armo
omra    mirao   oamr   amro
omar            ---    amor
Yrams therefore of the Word Anmor, in the La-
are Roma, Mora, Maro, Ramo, Armo.
this new Method of Anagrammatizing be like
much fervice to that Art, is left to the Poets.
EL, in Anatomy, Chirurgery, Cc. See CANAL.
L} or Bed of a River. See RIVER.
is alfo us'd for divers Arms of the Sea, where
runs within the Land, as alfo for certain nar-
onfin'd between two adjacent Continents, or
[d Continent, Cc. See SEA.
rfe, we fay, St. George's Channel; the Britilh
eChannelof the B lack Sea, of Conflantinople, Pc.
in Building. See GUTTER, PIPE, PLUMBE-
is particularly us'd in Architeclure, for a Part
Capital, a little hollow'd, in' form of a Canal;
the Abacus, and running the whole length of
!olution of the Volute; inclos'd by a Lifiel. See
of the Larmier, is the Softh of 'a Cornice; which
pendant Mouchette. See LARMIER, and SOFFIT.
of the VZolute, in the Ionic Capital, is the Face
ivolution; inclosid by a Liftel. See VOLUr E.
Cantus, is particularly us'd for the Vocal Mu-
i Hiffory we meet with divers Kinds of Chant,
'he firli is the Ambroflan, eflabliffi'd by St.
nd the Gregorian Chant, introduc'd by Pope
e Great, who eflabliflh'd Schools of Chantors,
4d the Church Song.
till retain'd in the Church under the Name of
: At firfi it was call'd the Roman Song.
n, or Gregorian Chant, is where the choir and
ing in Unifon, or all together in the fame man-
Zoyal. See COMEDY.
'LATE, in Building, a piece of Wood faffen' d
rids of the Rafters, and projefing beyond the
Wall, to fupport two or three Rows of Tiles, fo PIA'4
to prevent the Rain-Water from trickling down the Sideg
of the Wall.
CHANTER, or CHAUIJTOR' a Perfon who fings in
the Choir of a Cathedral. See CHOIR, 6ec.
All great Chapters have Chantors and Chaplains to eafe
and affill the Canons, and officiate in their Abfence. See
CHAPTER, CANON, C.         .    .
St. Gregory firfl inifituted the Office of Chantors, ered-
ing them into a Body, call'd Schola Cantorum: tho Asa-.
ialUS feems to attribute their Rife to Pope Hilariy, who
liv'd an hundred Years before Gregory.
But the Word grows obfolete in this Senfe, and inflead
thereof we ufe the Word Chorifter, or Singing-Man. See
CHANTOR is us'd, by way of Pxceilence, for the Prce-
centor, or Mailer of the Choir, which is one of the firfl
Dignities of the Chapter.
The Chantor bears the Cope and the Staff at folemn
Feflivals; and gives Tune to the reff at the beginning of
Pfalms and Anthems. See PRMtCENTOR.
The Antients cali'd the C1hantor Prirnicerius. See PRi-
To him formerly belong'd the DireEtion of the Deacons,
and other inferior Miniflers.
CHANTRY, a Chapel endow'd for the maintaining a
Priefi, or Priefis, to fing Mafs for the Souls of the Founders-
CHAOLOGY, the Hitiory or Decrription of the Chaos.
Orpheus, in his Chaolog ', fets forth the different Altera-
tions, Secretions, and divers Forms Matter went thro till
it became inhabitable  which amounts to the fame with
what we otherwife call Cofinogony. See COSMOGONY.
Dr. Burnet likewife gives us a Chaology, in his Theory
of the Earth. He reprerents the Chaos, as it was at firit
entire, undivided, and universally rude, and deform'd; or
the  bohbu Bohu: then fiews how it came divided into
its refpe&ive Regions; how the homogeneous Matter ga-
ther'd it felf apart from all of a contriry Principle; and
lafily, how it harden'd and became a folid habitable Globe,
CHAOS, among the antient Philofophers, was defcrib'd
a dark, turbulent Atmofphere; or a diforderly Syflem, or
Mixture of all forts of Particles together, without any
Form or Regularity: out of which the World was form'd
Chaos is every where reprefented as thefirfi Principle,
Ovum, or Seed of Nature and the World. All the antient
Sophifls, Sages, Naturalifis, Philofophers, Theologues, and
Poets, hold that Chaos was the Eldeft and Firil Principle,
XD Axilov I'd.,g
- The fBarbarians, Pbenicians, Egyptians, Perf ans, &c.
all refer the Origin of the World to a rude, mix'd, confus'd
Mafs of Matter. The Greeks, Orpheus, ie/led, Menan-
dfer, .4rilophanes, Euripides, and the Writers of Cyclic
Poems, fpeak of -the firti Chaos: The Ion7ic, and Platonic
Philofophers build the World out of it. The Stoics hold,
that as the World was firfi made of a Chaos, it fhall at laft
be reduc'd to a Chaos; and that all its Periods and Revo-
lutions in the mean time, are only Tranfitions from one C'baos
to another. Latily, the Latins, as Enhuius, Vav-ro, Ovid,
Lucretius, Statius, &c. are all of the fame Opinion. Nor
is there any Sea or Nation whatever, that does rot derive
their At dx6Ttairhv, the Strudure of their Wurld, from  a
The Opjnion arofe among the Barbariaizs, whence it
fpread to &h e Greeks, and froml the Greeks to the Romans
fand other iations.
Dr. Burnet observes, that befides Ariflotle and a few other
tfeude-Pythaeoreans, no body ever aferted, that our World
was always, fron Eternity, of the fame Nature, Form, and
Struaure as at prefent : but that it had been the flanding
Opinion of the Wife Men of all Ages, that what we now
call the Terrefirial Globe, was an uninform'd, indigefled
Mafs of heterogeneous Matter, call'd C/aos; and no more
than the Rudiments and Materials of the prefent World:
It does not appear who firft broach'd the Notion of a
Chaos. MXefs, the Eldefi of all Writers, derives the Origin
of his World, from a Confufion of Matter, dark, voids
deep, without form, which he calls f/'ohu Bobu; which is
precifely the Chaos of the Greek and Barbarian Philofo-
phers. And hence, poffibly, might thofe Philofophers de-
rive their Chaos, with fome Alteration and Interpolation.
Mofes goes no further than the Chaos ; nor tells us
whence it took its Origin, or whence its confus'd S9ata ; and
where Mofes flops, there, precifely, do all the reff. See ABYSS.
Dr. 2Burnet endeavours to fhew, that as the antient Phi-
lohophers, Eec. who wrote of the Cofniogcny, acknowledg'd
a Chaos for the Principle of their World; fo do the Di-
vines, or Writers of the Theogony derive the Origin' or
Generation of their Gods from the fame Principle. See
COSMOGONY, and THEoGONY; fee alfo GoI.
Etve eMr.

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