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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Capillation - catholick,   pp. 153-172 PDF (19.8 MB)

Page 153

CAP                         ( IS
Others, as Mr. Hauksbee, &c. have recourfe to the At-
tradfion of the 4Anuli of the concave Surface of the Tube;
to which Opinion the ingenious Dr. Morgan fubfcribes:
' Part of the Gravity of the Water in the Tube, fays that
£ Author, being taken off by the attraafive Power of the d
'internal concave Surface of the Glafs ; the Fluid within
the Tube, by the external greater Weight or Prelfure,
muff afcend fo far, as to compenfate for this Diminution  I
of Gravity by the Attraffion of the Glafs. He adds,
' that as the Power of Attradffion in Tubes, is in a recipto-
' cal Ratio of the Diameters; by leffening the faid 'ia-
meter, or by fuppofing the Tubes frill fmaller and fmaller,
Water, or any other Fluid, may be thus rais'd to any af- I
fignable Height.' Phil. Princ. of Medicine, P. 88, Wc.  I
But this Author is fomewhat overfeen : For fince in every X
Capillary Ilube, the Height to which the Water will Ipon- 1
taneouily afcend, is reciprocally as the Diameter of theI
Tube; it follows, that the Surface containing the fupend-
ed Water is always a given Quantity. But the Column of 4
Water fufpended in every Tube, is as the Diameter of i
the Tube: Therefore, if the Attraction of the containing i
Surface be the Caufe of the Water's Sufpenfion; it will x
follow, that equal Caufes produce unequal Effefs; which  I
is abfurd. And, again, not only his Solution, but his Phx- ]
nomenon alfo is firetch'd too far: 'For 'tis not in all Fluids
the Phanomenon obtains , but in Mercury the very contra-
ry is found: the Fluid in a Tube, not rifing fo high as the
Level of that in the Vefflel; and the Defe&t being found
the greater as the Tube is fmaller.
We muft, therefbre, recur to Dr. 5urin's Solution of this
Phienomenon, which is well Supported by Experiments:
I The Sufpenfion of the Water, on that Gentleman's Syflem,
' is owing to the Attraction of the Periphery of the concave
' Surface of the Tube, to which the upper Surface of the
'Water is contiguous and adheres?' This being the only
Part of the Tube, from which the Water mult recede up-
on its fubfiding; and confequently the only one which, by
the Force of its Cohefion and Attraffion, oppofes the De-
fcent of the Water. This he lhews to be a Caufe propor-
tional to the Eife&t; in regard, the Periphery, and the fuf-
pended Column, are both in the fame Proportion as the
biameter of the Tube. The Sufpenfion thus accounted
for, the Seemingly Spontaneous Afcent will eafily be folv'd:
For fince the Water that enters a Capillary hidbe as foon as
its Orifice is dipp'd therein, has its Gravity taken off by
the Attraffion of the Periphery, with which its upper Sur-
face is in Conta&, it muft neceffarily rife higher; partly
by the Prelfure of the flagnant Water, and partly by the
Attraaion of the Periphery, immediately above that which
is already contiguous to it. See ASCENT.
CAPILLATION, or Capillary Fra Iure, according to
fmite Writers. is a Fra~ure in the Skull. fo fmall that it
.rce be perceiv'd; but yet often proves mortal. See
'ISTRUM, in Surgery, a Bandage fpr the Head.
PITAL, of the Latin Caput, is us'd on various Occa-
to exprefs the Relation of a Head, Chief, or Princi-
ITAL City, intimates the principal City of a King-
Province, or State: as London is the Capital, or Ca-
'ity of England; Mofcow of Ruq/Jia; Con/iantinople
Ottoman Empire; Rouen of Normandy, &c. See
ITAL, or CAPITAL Stock, in Commerce, is the Fund,
ock of a trading Company or Corporation; or the
if Money they jointly furnifhf, or contribute to be em-
in Trade. See STOCx, and FUND. The Capital of
aft India Company, at its firfl Ereffion, was 36989 1.
ig, which was afterwards doubled; and is now com-
at 739787 1.  oo Pounds in the Capital Stock of the
any, entitles the Perfon to a Vote in the General
thereof  The Power given by Parliament to the
Sea Company, to increafe their Capital, was the
of all the Mifchief which enfu'd. See COMPANY.
?ITAL Crime, is that which fubjeffs the Criminal to
ital Puniffiment; i.e. to the Lofs of his Head, or his
PITAL Medicines, in Pharmacy, are the great, or
pal P1reparations of the, Shops ; remarkable for the
er of Ingredients, extraordinary Virtues, Tc. fuch as
e 7'reacle, Mitbridate, &c. See MITHRIDATE, SeC.
PIT AL Lees, are the flrong Lees made by the Soap-
s, from Pot-Afhes. See SoAr. They are alfo us'd in
:ry, as a Cauffic i and to make the Lapis Infernalis.
,PITAL, in Architeaure, the uppermoft Part of a Co-
or Pilaffer, ferving as the Heador Crowning thereof;
1 immediately over the Shaft, and under the Entabla-
L'ITAL of a Column, properly, is that whofe Plan Is
3)                    C AIP
CAPITAL of a PilaJler, is that whofe Plan is fquare; or
it leat recfilineal. See PILASTER.
The Capital is a principal, and elfential Part of an Orb
ter, of Column or Pilafter: It is made different in the
Different Orders; and is that which chiefly diflinguiffies
tnd charaaferizes the Orders. See ORDim.;
DiJe liufcan CAPITAL, is the mofi fimple aid unadorn'd ±
Its Members, or Parts, are but three, viz. an Abacus; un-
ler this an Ovolo, or quarter Round; and under that, a
Neck, or Colarino. The Neck terminates in an Aftragal,
or Fillet, belonging to the Fzft, or Shaft.
The Charac~er of this Capital, whereby it is didinguifh'd
From the Doric, &c. is that the Abacus is fquare, and quite
plain, and has no Ogee or other Moulding; and that there
ire no Annulets under the Ovolo. Indeed, Authors vary a
little as to the Characqer of the 7iufcan Capital. V/ignola
gives the Abacus a Fillet, in lieu of an Ovolo. Vitruvius
and Scamozzi, add an Aftragal and Fillet, between the
Ovolo and Neck * Serlio only a Fillet; iPbilander rounds
the Corners of the Abacus. In the T'rajan Column there
.s no Neck; but the A4fragal of the Shaft, is confounded
with that of the Capital. The Height of this Capital is
the fame with that of the Bafe, viz. one Module, or Se-
midiameter. Its Projeaure is equal to that of the Cincure
at the Bottom of the Column; viz. si- of the Module. See
T'he Doric CAPITAL, befide an Abacus, an Ovolo, and
a Neck, in common with the 71ufcan, has three Annulets,
or little fquare Members, underneath the Ovolo, in lieu
of the Afiragal in the rfcaln; and a Talon, Cima, or
Ogee, with a Fillet over the Abacus. Authors vary, too,
as to the Charaaers of this Capital: Palladio, Vignola, &c.
put Rofes under the Corners of the Abacus, and in the
Neck of the Capital. The Height of this Capital, Vitru-
vius, &c. makes one Module; and its Projeaure 37 Mi-
nutes and an half. See DoRic.
P'he Ionic CAPITAL is coMpos'd of three Parts; an Aba-
cus, confiding of an Ogee and a Fillet; under this a Rind,
which produces the Volutes, or Scrolls, the moft effential
Part of this Capital; and at the Bottom, an Ovolo, or quar-
ter Round: The Afiragal, under that Ovolo, belongs to
the Shaft; the middle Part is called a Rind, or Bark,
from its fuppos'd Refemblance to the Bark of a Tree laid
on a Vafe, whofe Brim is reprefented by the Ovolo; and
feeming to have been lhrunk up in drying,and to have twif-
ted into the Volutes. See VOLUTE, and SCROLL. The
Ovolo is adorn'd with Eggs, as they are fometimes call'd,
from their oval Form: The Greeks call it the Echinos. See
ECHINOS, EGG, Sc. The Height of this Capital, M.
Perrault makes 18 Minutes i its Projedure one Module,
feven Tenths.
The Differences in the Characqer of this Capital, flow
moffly from the different Managements of the Volutes;
and confide in this: That in the Antique, and fome of the
Modem, the Eye of the Volute anfwers not the Ailragal
of the Top of the Shaft, as Vitruvius, and moPe of the
Moderns make it : That the Face of the Volutes, which
ufually makes a Flat, is fometimes curv'd and convex'd,
fo as the Circumvolutions go advancing outwards; as
is frequent in the Antique. That the Border, or Rim of
the Scroll in the Volute, is Sometimes not only a plain
Sweep, as ordinarily; but the Sweep is accompany'd with
a Fillet. That the Leaves which inveil the Balluiler, are
Sometimes long and narrow ; Sometimes larger and broader:
That the two Faces of the Volutes, are fomnetimes join'd
at the outer Corner; the Balluflers meeting in the inner,
to make a Regularity between the Faces on the Front and
Back of the Building, with thofe of the Sides. That a-
mong the Modems, fince Scam ozzi, the Ionic Capital has
been alter'd, and the four Faces made alike ; by taking
away the Ballufiler, and hollowing all the Faces of the
Volutes inwards, as in the Compoi/te. That Scamozzi,
and fome others, make the Volutes to fpring out from the
Ovolo, as from a Vafe; after the manner of the modern
Compo.te: whereas, in the Antique, the Bark paffs be-
tween the Ovolo and Abacus, quite firaight, only twirting
at its Extremities to form the Volute. And lafily, that of
late Years, the Sculptors have added a kind of little Fefilo-
ons, fpringing from the Flower, whofe Stalk lies on the
firfi Circumvolution of the Volute; and fuppos'd to repre-
fent the Locks of Hair, hanging down on both fides of the
Face. See IONIC.
trhe Corinthian CAPITAL is much the richefi It has
no Ovolo; and its Abacus is very different from thofe of
the Tlqfcan, Doric, or Ionic ; as having its Faces circular,
hollow'd inward, with a Rofe in the middle of each Sweep.
Inftead of an Ovolo, and Annulets, here is only a Brim
of a Vafe; and the Neck is much lengthened and enrich'd
with a double Row, of eight Leaves in each, bending their
Heads downwards; and between them, fmall Stalks arifing:
whence fpring the Volutes; which don't refemble thofe of
the Ionic Capital; and which, inflead of the four in the
S f                  Ionic,

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