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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Arterial - attaching,   pp. 145-169 PDF (19.4 MB)

Page 145

C Ii.41 )
an A.b  y, would eafily feparate the fpirat Fibres from
one another. As the Arteries gow fmaler, there Coats
grow thinner.
All the  rries are conical, I. e. begin with a Trunk,
and growing lefs and narrower, end in Branches fo minute,
that they ercape the Sight, unlefs affified with Microrcopes;
.by which, in the Tails of Tadpoles and very frnall Eels,
the Extremities of the Arteries feem, by the fwift uninter-
rupted Courfe of the Blyod, to be inofculated or continued
to the Originations of the Veins: Tho by the Tranfparency
of thofe Velels, the aaual Continuation be not vifible. See
The Coats of the Arteries are of a very denfe, clofe Con-
texture5 by which means the Blood not being vifible thro'
them, they generally appear white. Add, that the Blood
proceeding from a greater Capacity to a lefs, is thereby fome-
what obfltu&ed in its Pafrage; but being forced on by the
Motion of the Heart, diflends the Coais, and thereby oc-
cafions a faliant Motion, calI'd the TPlfe.-By this Thick-
nefs and Whitenefs of the Irterics, with the Pulfation ob-
ferved therein, Arteries are diffinguifh'd from Veins. See
The Pulfe of the Arteries, like that of the Heart, con-
fills of two reciprocal Motions, a Syflole or Contraalion, and
a Diaflole or Dilatation: But they keep oppofite Times;
the Syllole of the one answering to the Diailole of the other.
All the Arteries of the Body, we have obferved, arife
in two large 'Trunks, from the two Ventricles of the Heart.
That from the right Ventricle, is called the 'Pulmonary
Artery, ferving to carry the flood into the Lungs: That
from the left, the Aorta, or great zartery; wthich, by its
numerous Ramifications, furnishes all the rell of the Body,
as far as the remote{} Stages of Circulation. See CIRcU-
LATION of the Blood.
The Great Artery, after it leaves the Heart, divides info
two large Trunks, called the ascending, or upper; and de-
foending, or lower, Trunks. See AORTA.
The afcending Trunk, or Aorta afcendens, conveys the
Blood to the Head, and other upper Parts of the Body, and
is Subdivided into three Branches.-The firfl, the right
Subclavian, whence arife the Carotid, Vertebral, Cervical,
right Axillary, &c.-The fecond, is the left Carotid.-The
the third, the left Subclavidn; whence arife the left Cer-
vical, Vertebral, and  xixillary.:-See each defcribed in its
The defsending 21rnk, or Aorta defeendens, carries the
Blood to the Trunk, and the lower Parts of the Body.
Out' of this arife the Bronchial, Intercoftals, Coeliac,
qPhrenic, Mefemteric, Emulgent, Spermatic, Iliac, Umbeli-
cal, EpigaqrriC, tpogatric, Crural, &c. with their feveral
Ramificati"iii6-See each ins its Place.
A Draught of the feveral Arteries, with their Divifions
and Subdivifionis, in their natural Order and Pofition, as
taken from the Life; fee in Plate Anatomy.
ARTERY, is alfo a pplied to that fiflulous Tube, compo-
fed of Cartilages and Membranes, which defcends from the
Mouth to the Lungs, for the Conveyance and Reconvey-
ance of the Air, in Refpiratidn. See REsrIRATIoN and
This is particularly called the Aiaera Arteria, or Trachea,
and popularly the Wnid-pipe. See TRACHEA.
ARTERIAL, or ARTERIOUS, in Anatomy, Something
that relates to the Arteries. See ARTERY,
The arterial Blood is fuppofed more warm, florid, and
Spirituous than the venal. See BLOOD.
The Antients gave the Name IYena Arteriofa, to the Tube
or Canal whereby the Blood pafies from the right Ventricle
of the Heart to the Lungs, as fuppofing it of an intermediate
Nature and Office, between an Artery and a Vein.-The
Moderns finding it a real Artery, call it the Pulmonary
Art,..w, .QpD.  ..MnN An
The Canalis Arteriofus, is a Tube in the Heart of a Fee
tus; which with the Foramen Ovale, ferves to maintain the
Circulation of the Blood, and divert it from the Lungs. See
CANALIS Arteriqfus, FjErus, CIRCULATION, and FORA-
MEN Ovale.
ARTHRITIS, in Medicine, a Difeafe better known un-
der the Name of the Gout. See GOUT.
The Word is form'd from the Greek -p9 po, A2trticulus, a
Joint; in regard the chief Seat of that Diflemper is in the
ARTHRODIA, in Anatomy, a Species of Articulation,
Wherein a flat Head of one Bone is received into a mhallow
Socket of another. See BONE and ARTICULATION.
Such is that of the Humerus with the Scapula. See Hu-
The Word is formed from the Greek f       Apov Articuliis,
atd A-e~ut,, recipio, I receive.
ARTHROSIS, or ARTHRON, in Anatomy, a Junlure
of two Bones, defigned for Motion  called alfo i.rticulation.
&e A1rxtCULATION.-
The Word isformed from the Greek ap~po, Articults,
Junclure, Joint.
ARTICLE, ARTICULUS, a little Part or Divifion of a
Book,Writing, or the like.---Aquinas divides his Sum of The-
ology, into feveral Quellions; and each Quellion, into divers
Artic'es.-Such an Account conftlls of fo many irticles.
ARTICLE is alfo ufed for the feveral Claufes, or Condi-'
tions of a Convention, Treaty of Peace, or the like. See
In this Senfe we fay, articles of Marriage, Articles of Ca-
pitulation, Preliminary Articles, &c.-The Ellablilhment
of an .Eaft-India Company at Oflend, is a dired Breach of
the eighth and ninth Articles of the Treaty of AMunfler.
ARTICLES of the Clergy, Atrticuli Cleri, are certain Sta-
tutes touching Perfons and Caufes ecclefiaflical, made un-
der Edward II. and III.
ARTICLE of Faith, is fome Point of Chriffian Doarinna
which we are obliged to believe, as having been revealed
by God himfelf, and allow'd and eflablifh'd as fuch by the
Church. See FAITHI, SC.
ARTICLE, Articults, in Anatomy, is a Joint, or Junaure,
of two or more Bones of the Body. See BONE, JOINT, &5c,
ARTICLE of/Death, Articiulus AIfcrtis, the lall Pangs, or
Agony of a dying Perfon. See AGONY.
The Pope ulually fends his Benedi~ion to the Cardinals,'
Lec. in Articulo Mortis.
ARTICLE, in Arithmetic, fignifies the 'Number IO, or
any Number juilly divifible into ten Parts; as 20, 30, 40,
Eic.-Thefe are fometimes called Decads, and fometimes
round Numbers: Harris.
ARTICLE, in Grammar, is a Particle ufed in moft Lan
guages, for the declining of Nouns, and denoting the feve-
ral Cafes and Genders thereof.  See PARTICLE, NOUN,'
The Ufe of Articles arifes hence, that in Languagec
which have not different Terminations to exprefs the dif-
ferent States and Circumflances of Nouns; there is fome-
thing required to fupply that (ffice. See TERMINATLON.
The latins have no Articles; but the Greeks, and molt
of the modern Languages, have had Recour'ib htreto,
for fixing and ascertaining the Vague Signification of conm-
mon and appellative Names. See NAME and AriELLA-
The Greeks have their o, the eatlern Tongues their he,
Emphaticum ; the Italians their il, lo, and la.-The ~rencb
their le, la, and les.-The Engli)l alfo have two Articles>.
A and 2T7be; which being prefixed to Sublantives, apply
their general Signification to fome particular Thing.-Thus
we fay, f Man; that is, fome Man or other: lohe Aan;
that is, that certain Man.-
Hence it appears that d is ufed in a larger, and more ge-
neral SenCe, being applied indifferently to apy partiular Per-
fon or Thing.- Whereas, The diflinguilbes individually,'
and mews what particular Thing is fpoke of.-If the Sub-
filantive to which the Particle g4 is affix'd, begin with a
Vowel, or an H; we wriie and fpeak it,' Wi: So we fay, An
Eye, an Hour, &)c.
Some Grammarians make the Article a diftin&l Part of
Speech; others will have it a Pronoun; and others, with
Mr. Greenwood, a Noun adjeaive. See SPEECH, PRONSUN,
Articles are Things of great Service in a Language, as
they contribute to the more neat and precife expreffing of fe-
veral Properties and Relation which mull otherwife be lof.t
-And hence one great Difadvaniage of the Latin, above
other Languages which have Articles; in that the Articles
being either expreffed, or left out, makes an Alteration inr
the enf, which the Latins cannot diffinguifh.-Thus whey
theFe'il faid to our Saviour, Si tu es filius Dei, it may ei-
ther be underfiood, if you are a Son of God, or, if you are
the Son of God.-Scaliger, from the Want of Articles in the'
Latin, concluded them ufelefs.
The Italians even prefix Articles to proper Names,
which dont naturally need any, in regard they do of them-
felves fignify Things individually.-Thus they Ay,11 Ariojho;
11 TRV1o, II Petrarcka.-Even the Trench join the Article
to the proper ZNames of Kingdoms, Provinces, Fec. as la
Suede, la Normandie. - And we our felves do it to the
tames of certain Mountains and Rivers  as the Rhine,
the Zanube, the Alps, &c.
Indeflnuite ARTICLE. The Article A is faid to be in-
definite, becaufe applied'to, Names taken in their more
general, and &onfured Signification ;' as, He travelled withI
the Port and Equipage o a Prince j where the Word Prince
may' be underifood of any Prince in the general.
5/efinite ARTICLE. The Artice 7The is fid? to lie e
nite, or demojlfrative, as fixing 'tie Senfe of the Word it
is put before, to one individual Thing. SVee ,D EN .  ,.
Fa. Buler diffinguifhes a third kina of Aie  n the
French, which he calls intermediate, or atiuie ferving tom
denote part of the Thing' exprefed by thaw $44ntjiies the
Nn                       a~~~~~~~i4

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