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United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States, 1951. The Near East and Africa
(1951)

The Near and Middle East: multilateral relations,   pp. 1-342 PDF (132.2 MB)


Page 67


     GENERAL U.S. POLICIES IN THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST        67
of the area, namely, broadening the base of contact between the United
States and the people of the Middle East. This need is intensified by
the success of Communist tactics within the several countries.
  6. The program's success will depend in large measure upon the
existence of substantive aid which demonstrates in concrete form the
interest of the United States in the welfare of the people. 'Thus in
Greece and Turkey, and to a lesser extent in Iran, the existence of
economic and military aid adds great weight to the approach; Point
Four and other aid to the Near East will provide some such tangible
evidence.
  7. The success of the program also depends in large measure upon
the leadership of the Chiefs of Mission, and upon the effectiveness
of efforts to orientate Mission officers in the objectives, purposes and
methods of the approach. Wives of officials can be of great value in
pursuing the objectives of the program and should be made an im-
portant part of the effort.
   8. Private American citizens, including Americans of foreign ex-
 traction returning to their home lands, can if properly oriented have
 an important impact upon the development of opinions favorable to
 the United States. In some countries it would be advantageous to
 create informal committees comprised of influential Americans to
 guide this aspect of the program.
   9. Knowledge among the local peoples and Governments of con-
 scious efforts on our part to organize sources of American influence
 would have an adverse effect upon the program.
   10. Private American institutions, American schools and American-
 country societies, represent some of our most effective tools for in-
 fluencing public opinion in the Middle East.
   11. Naval visits, particularly to Greece and Turkey, have been of
 great "grass roots" value, and could be put to even greater use.
   12. The oil companies in the Middle East can, by following increas-
 ingly progressive labor policies and more effective public relations
 programs, exercise a more constructive influence upon the peoples
 of the several countries and assist in their orientation toward the
 West.
   13. Special national sensitivities make it necessary to develop "grass
 roots" programs in light of the situation prevailing in each country,
 since methods which might be effective in one country might not work
 in another.
 B. Recommendations
   1. In endeavoring to encourage political and social progress in the
 Middle East, we should pursue the middle road of persuasion, mutual


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