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United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States, 1951. The Near East and Africa
(1951)

The Near and Middle East: multilateral relations,   pp. 1-342 PDF (132.2 MB)


Page 61


     GENERAL U.S. POLICIES IN THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST        61
in extending aid to Iran has been made the basis of effective commu-
nist propaganda in that country. In addition, the policy of the Anglo-
Iranian Oil Company has been a handicap in the control of
communism in Iran (see below, section X).
  3. The basic defects of the economic and social structure in the Arab
States which are responsible for the comparatively large communist
potential in that area are either not recognized or are neglected by the
Governments of the Arab states.
B. Recommendations
   1. It was recommended that the Middle Eastern Governments be
 encouraged to maintain and strengthen thei.r police controls against
 communism.
   2. It was further recommended that, in formulating programs of
 economic and technical assistance to the countries of the area pursuant
 to other recommendations of the Conference, full consideration should
 be given to the need for the correction of economic and social defects
 as an indispensable element in efforts to control the spread of
 communism.
                                V
    APPRAISAL OF RIGHTIST AND ULTRA-NATIONALIST STRENGTEH AND
                  INFLUENCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST
 A. Conclusions
   1. It was agreed that all political regimes in the Middle East, with
 the exception of Israel, are reactionary or rightist in comparison with
 our own. Note was taken of the . . . influence of Islam and of the
 various vested interests in the area.
   2. In the area comprising Greece, Turkey, and Iran, a political
 trend from the right to the center is apparent, and this is due in large
 measure to the more extensive influence and association of the United
 States with these countries. There is a reformist trend in Iran, exempli-
 fied by the land distribution and other reform policies followed of the
 Shah and the present Government.
    3. The Conference found little real evidence of liberal trends in the
  Arab states, although the growing power of the parliament over the
  executive in Syria was recognized. However, the force of public opin-
  ion in these states, exemplified by the growing influence of Palestinians
  in Jordan, is becoming increasingly a factor which the Governments
  of the area have to take into account. In general, genuine trends
  towards liberalization in the Arab world are less evident in the dy-
  nastic states than in the republics.
  B. Recommendations
    1. It was recommended that United States representatives in the
  Middle East, using all agencies at their disposal, give appropriate
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