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United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States, 1951. The Near East and Africa
(1951)

The Near and Middle East: multilateral relations,   pp. 1-342 PDF (132.2 MB)


Page 57


     GENERAL U.S. POLICIES IN THE, NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST       57
  13. With respect to the division of military assistance between
Greece, Turkey, and Iran, the Conference recommended the following:
  (a) Owing to limited Greek manpower and Greece's defensive mili-
tary potential, United States military aid should be predicated on
plans for reasonable defense against overwhelming assault, and ulti-
mately on holding and securing Crete as an essential base for Mediter-
rean-Middle Eastern operations;
  (b) Military aid to Turkey should be the most extensive; predi-
cated on assurances that Turkey will not be neutral, such aid should
be designed both (1) to strengthen and accelerate the training of
existing forces with a view to increasing Turkey's substantial capacity
to pose serious opposition to direct attack, and (2) to generate offen-
sive power;
   (c) For the present, military aid to Iran should be considered
primarily as a cold-war measure and should not be of such volume
as to be of material benefit to the enemy if Iran were overrun; but steps
should continue to be taken systematically to build up a strong defen-
sive army and to supply equipment as rapidly as it can effectively be
absorbed.
  14. With respect to United States policy towards cash reimbursable
  and military grant aid, it was recommended that all assistance should
  be granted on the basis of United States or Allied interests, and that
  reciprocal benefits should always be sought; that henceforth arms aid
  should be extended on the same terms to Israel and the Arab states,
  including Saudi Arabia, to prevent damaging charges of favoritism;
  that conversion of the Saudi program to a grant basis would facilitate
  the obtaining by the United States of long-term air-base rights at
  Dhahran; that arms to the other Arab states and Israel should also be
  on a grant basis; and that cash reimbursable assistance should be con-
  sidered only as a useful supplement to military grant aid.
  15. Continuing effort should be exerted to clarify the respective
  roles of the United States, United Kingdom, France and the United
  Nations in connection with economic and military assistance, both for
  short-term and for long-term programs in the area.
  16. The United States should promote operations under the United
  Nations for the achievement of long-range economic and social objec-
  tives in the Middle East; however, with respect to programs which
  would involve large financial commitments on the part of the United
  States, preference should be given to the concept of bilateral arrange-
  ments, in order to reserve to the United States a greater flexibility in
  the execution of such programs.
  17. Means should be sought to encourage the conviction in the
  countries of the Middle East that United States motivation for co-
  operation is not limited to seeking security and economic benefits, but
  that it represents also a fundamental desire to assist in general
  development.


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