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United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1919

Poland,   pp. 741-800 PDF (21.7 MB)

Page 799

credit or to pauperize the population. In accordance with Presi-
dent Wilson's speech of January 8, 1918,v3 Poland should be freed
from the limitation of all economic barriers and raised to a position
where it can profit by the equality of trade conditions to be estab-
lished among nations. Since no country can be a good financial risk
without domestic tranquility and freedom from invasion, the fear
of which may lead to over-expenditure and competitive armament,
this security should be provided for the good of Poland and the
peace of the world. While we are convinced that Poland will abide
by its obligations to preserve order at home, the protection against
external interference is the duty of the League of Nations. With
political security, industrial peace, and an open market with no
foreign debt not offset by foreign receivables, Poland, safeguarded
by the League of Nations and abundantly provided as she is with
natural assets in property and man-power, becomes an excellent
commercial risk for foreign capital.
(d) To study the question of over-population or under-industrial-
ization, not at all local to Poland, but intimately connected with its
future. It is not healthy for Poland to pursue a policy of summer
emigration to other countries, nor is it desirable that it should be
continue [sic] a heavy emigration to America and elsewhere. It
is a process from which the nation is still suffering, since it tends
to take the strong and leave the less reliant. Furthermore, with the
present development of the world, and the beginning of new thoughts
in the development of nationalism, if emigration from Poland is to
be necessary, the question as to whither and under what conditions
it shall be directed becomes peculiarly subject to international solu-
If Poland by her own initiative, or through outside aid, can so
speed up and direct her industrial policy as to absorb the potential
labor supply, the Republic may solve the question under new con-
ditions of political and economic freedom.
(e) To further the rapid development of Polish education. The
safety of the masses from exploitation through the sophistries of
monarchism or of anarchism depends on the degree of enlighten-
ment they possess. It is therefore to the advantage of the League
of Nations to see instituted a campaign of universal education toward
a general understanding of the great ideals of democracy and for
the protection of peoples against the agitator or the reactionary who
deals in slogans that appeal to any populace untrained to estimate
them at their proper value.
(f) To guarantee to Poland the disinterested counsel of the Allied
Democracies based on their previous experience. Together with the
Foreign Relations, 1918, Supplement 1, vol. i, p. 12.

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