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United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1919
(1919)

Poland,   pp. 741-800 PDF (21.7 MB)


Page 798

FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1919, VOLUME II
occupied or invaded by Polish troops, civilian mobs have followed
the soldiery, and the two elements have engaged in robbery of shops
and dwellings, and in cases where resistance was offered, in assaulting
and killing the owners or occupants. The circumstances of some of
these incidents have been aggravated by intoxication due to the
looting of liquor stores, with the usual adjuncts of criminal irre-
sponsibility and mob rage. We believe that none of these excesses
were instigated or approved by any responsible governmental author-
ity, civil or military. We find, on the other hand, that the history
and the attitude of the Jews, complicated by abnormal economic and
political conditions produced by the war, have fed the flame of anti-
semitism at a critical moment. It is believed, however, that the
gradual amelioration of conditions during the last eleven months
gives great promise for the future of the Polish Republic as a stable
democracy.
12. In spite of the existing antisemitism arising from very diverse
factors we are convinced that religious differences as such play
therein a relatively slight role, and that the Polish nation is disposed
to religious tolerance and self-control in religious disagreements.
The ending of the war, the removal of external menace, and the re-
vival of industry will reduce the present common irritation caused
by abnormal conditions.
Jewish business men have also assured us that with the restoration
of trade, industry, and banking, the Poles will cease to employ eco-
nomic pressure as a political weapon.
13. In addition to the disposition toward tolerance evinced in the
presence of violent party controversy and active propaganda from
abroad, Poland has accepted the Minorities Clause of the Treaty of
Versailles, guaranteeing to all citizens security of life and property
and equal protection of the laws. Despite dissatisfaction with some
stipulations of this Treaty, a determination has been expressed by
prominent leaders of even the extremes in all political camps to
execute it faithfully.
14. The duties of the outside world toward Poland are:
(a) To establish the territorial extent of the Polish State. Should
any of the eastern country which contains the largest proportion of
Jews, revert to Russia, the problem thus transferred can be dealt
with by the League of Nations.
(b) To protect Poland from the menace of external interference
by the application of Article 10 of the Covenant of the League of
Nations.
(c) To further by means of judiciously administered external help
the recovery of Poland from five years of war. This material aid,
in the nature of food, clothing, and raw materials, should not be
gratuitously furnished or so distributed as to overtax the national
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