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United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1919
(1919)

Poland,   pp. 741-800 PDF (21.7 MB)


Page 797

economic equilibrium, while an opportunity for emigration to an open
and liberal Russia would provide an outlet for the surplus population
of the Republic. With a stable Government in Russia firmly allied
in principle with the Allied and Associated Powers, an end would be
made to the German intrigue that is seeking to substitute Russia for
Austria-Hungary as a field of exploitation and accordingly strives to
discredit Poland as a dangerous competitor. In fact protection
afforded minorities such as before us in this investigation may well
bring up the Russian condition where this problem is the protection
of the majority against a minority based on a difference in social
philosophy and wielding power by seizure of the instruments of war
and by the use of most elementary forms of force and fear. Is not
the duty of the nations as clear to determine the rule of the majority
against despotism whether one or many, thus preserving domestic
tranquility as well as freedom from foreign invasion? Is not the
effect of domestic disorder in Russia upon Poland and upon the Peace
of the World quite as important a subject for regulation by the Na-
tions as in [is?] the limitation upon the majority's treatment of mi-
norities ? Is not the solidarity of Nations shown quite as much by one
as the other and are they not both requisite for future peace? The
foundation of an enduring government in Russia depends on the cer-
tainty that no minority, whether autocratic or Bolshevistic, shall ever
be able to exploit the inertia of the masses in overthrowing any sys-
tem of democracy that may be established within its boundaries. It
is to the interest of the world that this internal security shall be per-
petuated, and the rise of a powerful democracy on the eastern frontier
of Poland will insure the safety and freedom of action of the Repub-
lic. In short, once the military threat against Poland is removed
and the territorial uncertainty of the Republic is ended, the nation
will be able to concentrate its energies on internal problems, and, by
the course of natural development, create a governmental system in-
suring equality, protection, and prosperity to all elements of its
population. The Mission thoroughly believes that Poland has the
raw materials of citizenship quite equal to this accomplishment.
11. By way of summary, we find that beginning with the armistice,
about November 11, 1918, and for six months and more during the
establishment of orderly government in Poland, many regrettable
incidents took place throughout both Congress Poland and the regions
the future of which is still in doubt. The occurrence[s] in Congress
Poland were not so serious in number of deaths, but there have been
violent collisions accompanied by riots, beatings, and other assaults
which are apparently traceable in large part to anti-Jewish preju-
dice. In every case they have been repressed by either the military or
the civil authorities, but only after grievous results. In the territory
797
POLAND


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