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United States Department of State / Index to the executive documents of the House of Representatives for the second session of the forty-fifth Congress, 1877-'78
(1877-1878)

Portugal,   pp. 451-462 PDF (5.5 MB)


Page 452


FOREIGN RELATIONS.
   The article from the-Times is singularly unjust to the old field-marshal's
 memory, and contains assertions which are entirely unsupportedby the
 facts. For instance, it implies that "he submitted to the French on
their
 invasion of Portugal, in 1ý07, whereas just the contrary was the
case.
 Ile served under Wellington in 18,08, and in 1810 commanded a battalion
 at the battle of Busaco, receiving a medal from the Regent of England
 for his bravery on that occasion. He commanded a division before
 Bayonne in 1812, and served under Wellington at the battle of Toulouse.
 I knew him well, and he once told.me that he entered London with the
 allied sovereigans in 1814 as a brevet brigadier-general, being at the time
 but 24 .years of age. And another remarkable event in his career is the
 fact thaet he was a member of the congress of Vienna of 1815, and was
 one of those who signed the famous convention entered into by the allied
 powers there on the 19th March of that year.
   The duke was restless, and frequently gave his government trouble.
In the month, of May, 1870, he headed a nmilitary revolution in Lisbon,
which effected the overthrow of his political opponents and placed him
in power at the head of a new ministry, which, however, was of but
short durationi as it terminated on the 2d of September following. But
-he was too powerful a rival not to be conciliated, and the mission to
London was given him. * * * There he remained until his death,
which took place on the 21st instant, in his eighty-sixth year.
  Notwithstanding his political .course, the duke was highly esteemed
by the great mass of the Portuguese peeopl, was an especial favorite
with the army; and the nation at the moment is paying sincere respect
to his memory, and as a mark of national regard a vessel of war has
been dispatched to England to bring his remains in state to Portugal
for final interment in Lisbon.
  I have often thought that his expedition from England to Terceira,
in the Azores, suggested that island to ýCaptain Se-immes' as a fit
and
convenient place to arm and equip the Anglo-rebel cruiser "No' 290."
  Saldanha's design was to aid Dona Maria against Don MiJgael. The
expedition consistedof fonr vessels, not armed or equipped, but believed
to-be provided with the means of arming the most formidable:of tbheir
number. His purpose becoming known, and the British Government
believing that it had committed a breach of neutrality by allowing him
to escape, dispatched, at Lord Wellingtons sinstance, who was then :prime
minister, a naval force, under Captain Walpole, with orders to prevent
Saldanha-from landing his men. Captain Walpole carried out his Orders
effectively. Saldanha demanded an explanation, claiming that his ves-
sels were unarmed and were Portuguese, and were bound to an island
under Portuguese authority; but getting no satisfactory reply, surren-
dered his vessels and men as prisoners. Captain Walpole, however, re-
fused to receive either, and the vessels finally put into a French: port.
The expedition was nevertheless e ffectually broken up by Captain Wal-
pole, who fired into one of the vessels, killing one and wounding another
man. In Dana's Wheaton, at pages-566 and 567, is an interesting note
on the question of neutrality involved in thisexpedition and its defeat,
and Sir Erskine May gives a concise history-of the affair and the debates
arising from it in Parliament in his excellent work.on the English con-
stitution.           :                                 " "
  That Lord Paimerston knew of this precedent cannot bedoubted, but
he failed * *a * * toadopt it as a guide in :the .case of the Alabama,
and the world knows with What consequences.
      I have, &c.,
                                           BENJAMIN MOr    A-.
452


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