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United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States : diplomatic papers, 1945. General : the United Nations
(1945)

The United Nations conference on international organization, San Francisco, California, April 25-June 26, 1945,   pp. 1-1432 PDF (565.5 MB)


Page 424


FOREIGN RELATIONS, 1945, VOLUME I
not want to shut off every chance for adjustment, and we should leave
it open to the Council to make some investigations and assist in the
ultimate settlement of these problems.
  As to the matter of sovereign equality and the integrity of states,
the memorandum prepared by Mr. Gerig 38 indicates how the relation-
ships of certain states to others vary, and it is difficult to define their
exact degree of sovereignty and independence. The number of these
political units goes up to about 70. The first 45 or so can be considered
fully independent, but the sovereignty of the remainder is qualified in
some degree. We have to leave out of the Charter any attempt to
define a state or to guarantee boundaries, but we should come as close
as possible to maintaining the integrity and independence of political
units by regulating their behavior and preventing aggression. The
question is likely to be discussed in the Conference and to rage in
the Senate. On the one hand, we cannot guarantee boundaries. On
the other, we cannot proceed to tear them up constantly. In order to
make an adjustment a state must have a real case. In the matter of
relationships of states, we must start where we are and work out from
this point. We cannot jump to the millenium.
  Representative Bloom said he was somewhat concerned about the
matter of guaranteeing all the new boundaries that would be made at
the end of this war. Mr. Bowman said we would have no difficulty
with the enemy states, since they were not signing this document, but
there might be troubles with many of our present allies.
  Senator Connally stated that paragraph 1 of Section B would come
into play if a dispute cannot be settled even though every attempt has
been made to settle it under-paragraphs 3 to 5 of Section A.
  [3. The parties to any dispute the continuance of which is likely to
endanger the maintenance of international peace and security should
obligate themselves, first of all, to seek a solution by negotiation, medi-
ation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement, or other peace-
ful means of their own choice. The Security Council should call upon
the parties to settle their dispute by such means.
  4. If, nevertheless, parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in
paragraph 3 above fail to settle it by the means indicated in that para-
graph, they should obligate themselves to refer it to the Security
Council. The Security Council should in each case decide whether
or not the continuance of the particular dispute is in fact likely to
endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, and,
accordingly, whether the Security Council should deal with the dis-
pute, and, if so, whether it should take action under paragraph 5.
  5. The Security Council should be empowered, at any stage of a
dispute of the nature referred to in paragraph 3 above, to recommend
appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment.]
  '8 Memorandum on political units of the world, not printed.
424


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