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United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States, 1949. The Far East: China
(1949)

Evacuation of Americans from China,   pp. 1210-1364 PDF (54.5 MB)


Page 1210


     EVACUATION OF AMERICANS FROM CHINA1
I. CONTINUED PLANNING FOR EVACUATION AND PROTECTION OF
PROPERTY; DEPARTMENT OPPOSITION TO RETURN OF DEPEND-
ENTS TO CHINA; AND SITUATION AFTER CHINESE COMMUNIST
OCCUPATION OF NANKING AND SHANGHAI (JANUARY-JULY 5)
811.24593/1-549
Meinorandumrb by the Director of the Orffce of Far Eastern Affairs
     (Butterworth) to the Acting Secretary of State (Lovett)
                                 [WASHINGTON,] January 5, 1949.
  The following comments may be helpful to you in connection'with
the discussion scheduled for January 6, in the NS!C,2 at the President's
request, of the possibility of the United States retaining "a foothold"
in Shanghai, should that city be taken over by the Chinese Communists.
  A foothold in Shanghai might mean (1) American control, defense
and administration of the entire city or selected areas thereof, (2)
American control and defense of certain key port facilities and shore
installations, or (3) the retention of the American Consulate General
and, insofar as feasible, American private commercial, industrial,
philanthropic, educational and religious enterprises in thatcity. It is
believed that the position of American forces guarding all key installa-
tions within the city would become militarily 'and politically untenable
in a Communist environment and that, consequently, if a foothold is
to be retained in Shanghai, the real alternatives are (1) and (3) above.
  !Course (1) means that in effect the U.S. would assert rights similar
to but more extensive than those existing under the pre-war system
of extraterritoriality and foreign concessions-rights which the Chi-
nese have always resented as 'a derogation of sovereignty and a stigma
on the nation, whidh have been traditionally exploited by Chinese
political groups to rally domestic support and which the U.S. formally
renounced under the Sino-American Treaty of 1943,3 with other coun-
tries acting similarly. Even in that period, the United States had no
concessions of its own 'and, in accordance with the Hay doctrine of the
  1 Continued from Foreign Relations, 1948, vol. viii, pp. 809-946.
  2 National Security Council.
  ' Signed at Washington, January 11, 1943, Department of State, Treaty Series
No. 984, or 57 Stat. (pt. 2) 767. For correspondence on negotiation of this
treaty,
see Foreign Relations, 1942, China, pp. 268 ff.
      1210


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