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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook area reports: domestic 1978-79
Year 1978-79, Volume 2 (1978-1979)

Prosser, Leonard J.
Virginia,   pp. 543-552 PDF (960.6 KB)


Page 547

 NONMETALS structural concrete accounted for the re 
 mainder. 
Aphte.—Virginia was the only State to 
produce aplite in 1978 and 1979. The Feldspar Corp., Hanover County, and
International Minerals and Chemical Corp., Nelson County, mined aplite by
open pit methods. After onsite processing, aplite was used primarily in the
manufacture of glass. In 1978, Owens-Illinois, Inc., began construction of
a glass container plant in James City that was being designed to use aplite,
along with other materials, to make throwaway bottles. The plant was scheduled
to begin production in early 1980 with an estimated annual output of 500
million glass contain- 
THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF VIRGINIA 
547 
roadless and undeveloped land areas in the National Forest System to determine
their general use for wilderness or other multiple use designation resource
development. In 1978, the Forest Service identified 16 areas in Jefferson
National Forest, 7 of which, totaling 29,553 acres, were recommended to Congress
for addition to the Wilderness System. Of the 15 areas identified in George
Washington National Forest, 5, totaling 33,025 acres, were nominated fQr
wilderness designation. Congressional action on the 12 areas was expected
in 1980. Once an area is designated as wilderness by Congress, vir 
tually all activities that could alter the natural character of the land
are prohibited. 
 Virginia's Division of Mined Land Reclamation received a $203,000 grant
in 1979 from the U.S. Office of Surface Mining. The funds were to be used
to inventory the State's abandoned mine lands as a first step towards reclamation.
The Division's Minerals Other Than Coal Section reported that in the 1978-79
period, the State's clay, sand and gravel, and stone mining operations disturbed
2,068 acres, and only 334 were reclaimed. 
REVIEW BY NONFUEL MINERAL COMMODITIES 
ers. 
 Cement.—Lone Star Cement, Inc., Botetourt County, and Riverton
Corp.,
Warren County, produced cement in the State in 1978 and 1979. One of the
Nation's largest operators, Lone Star Cement, Inc., produced both portland
and masonry cement at its Botetourt plant, which has an annual capacity of
over 1 million tons. The company also operated cement manufacturing plants
in the city of Chesapeake. Riverton Corp. produced only masonry cement. 
 Clays.—In 1978 and 1979, clay was produced by 8 companies in 11
counties
and 1 city. Leading counties, in decreasing. order of production tonnage,
were Botetourt, Smyth, Orange, and Brunswick. During this period, nine plants
used clay in brick production. A 10th brick plant was under development in
1979, with capacity estimated at 35 million brick annually. About 90% of
the clay produced in Virginia was used in the manufacture of face and common
brick. The manufacture of lightweight aggregate for use in concrete block
and 
Table 4.—Virginia: Clays sold or used by producers 
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars) 
Quantity 
Value 
1975                     
1976                     
1977                     
1978                     
1979                     
819 
862 
890 
1,043 
1,059 
1,152 
1,210 
1,294 
3,266 
3,512 
 Gypsum.—United States Gypsum Co., Virginia's only producer of
crude
gypsum in 1978 and 1979, continued underground mining operations at the Plasterco
mine in Washington County. Gypsum was processed at the company's mill in
Plasterco for use in gypsum wallboard, portland cement, and as agricultural
gypsum. The company also operated a mill in Norfolk to process material imported
from Nova Scotia, Canada. 
 Kyanite.—Virginia led the Nation in kyanite production in 1978
and
again in 1979. Kyanite Mining Corp. operated one surface mine at Willis Mountain,
Buckingham County, and another at Baker Mountain, Prince Edward County. Most
of the ore was processed at plants near the mine sites and converted to synthetic
mullite by calcination. The fmished product was marketed in bulk or in bags.
The major use of kyanite was in the manufacture of brick for rotary kilns
and furnaces. 
 Lime.—In terms of value, lime was among the State's leading nonfuel
commodities in 1978 and 1979. Lime was produced by six companies with operations
in Frederick, Giles, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties. Consumption was mainly
by the 


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