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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook metals, minerals, and fuels 1969
Year 1968, Volume 1-2 (1969)

Morning, John L.
Chromium,   pp. 277-286 PDF (963.7 KB)


Page 285

 CHROMIUM 285 
 Finland.—In its first full year of operation, Outokumpu Oy mined 233,574
tons of crude ore, beneficiated 203,458 tons, and produced 78,623 tons of
chromite concentrate. The associated ferroalloy plant produced 28,515 tons
of charge chromium. Metall und Rohstoff AG (Lissauer group) signed a contract
with Outokumpu Oy early in the year to market Outokumpu's chromium alloy
output worldwide. 
 Greece.—Aspioti-Elka Chrome Mines Ltd. reopened its mine at Skoumtsa,
in the Kozani district, which has been closed since 1966. Production of metallurgical
grade chromite was expected to reach an annual rate of 15,000 tons during
the year. 
 India.—Production of ferrochromium during 1968 totaled about 1,650
tons with Mysore Iron and Steel Works accounting for 1,500 tons. The balance
was produced by R. Sen & Company, Electric Control Gear (P) Ltd., and
Mehra Ferroalloys. The - Indian chromium chemical industry with an installed
capacity of about 8,000 tons of bichromate capacity consumed about 12,000
tons of chromite; the refractory industry utilized about 38,000 tons. 
The Orissa State Industrial Development 
Corp. of India planned to initiate operation of a 10,000-ton-per-year furnace
to produce ferrochromium during the last quarter of the year. 
Japan.—The Japanese ferroalloy industry continued to expand to keep
pace with the growth in its steel industry. It was estimated that 825,000
tons of chromite would be required for Japan's 1970 financial year. With
the growth of the ferroalby industry during the past 15 years, many small
furnaces have been retired in favor of larger furnace installations of 20,000—30,000
kilo-volt-amperes. In addition, some producers have become integrated with
the steel industry. Nisshin Steel, Japan's largest stainless steel producer,
planned to receive molten ferrochromium from its neighbor Showa Denko Co.,
Ltd. 
 Malagasy Republic.—Compagnie Minière d'Andriamena (COMINA)
placed in operation a new facility to produce 120,000 tons of chromite annually.
Mining plans call for the removal of 552,000 tons of overburden per year
to recover 192,000 tons of crude ore averaging 41 percent Cr203. After beneficiation,
120,000 tons of 51 percent 
Cr2O3 concentrate will be available for export to France. About 20 percent
will be available for reexport to third countries. 
 Phiippines.—Of the total chromite produced in the Philippines, refractory-grade
chromite accounted for 76 percent and metallurgical-grade, 24 percent. Exports
of refractory-grade chromite totaled 419,284 tons, of which the United States
received 46 percent; United Kingdom, 22 percent; Japan, 12 percent; Canada,
7 percent, and eight other countries, 13 percent. Japan received all of the
133,245 tons of metallurgical-grade chromite exported. 
South Africa.—Production of chromite 
in South Africa totaled 1,320,203 tons, 24 percent of which was less than
44 percent Cr2O3 67 percent, 44 to 48 percent Cr2O3 and 9 percent, over 48
percent Cr203. Local sales accounted for 285,305 tons, and the balance was
available for export. 
 The Swartkop Mine of Chrome Mines of South Africa Ltd. (CHROMSA), jointly
owned by Union Corporation Ltd. and African Mining Trust, has an annual capacity
of 280,000 tons of chromite. Five seams can be mined, and mine operations
are flexible enough to allow switching men and equipment from area to area
without loss of efficiency. Mining from the various seams together with two
concentrating plants allows the production of a wide range of ores and concentrate
ranging from plus 50 percent Cr203 to 41 percent Cr2O3, with chromium-to-iron
ratios ranging from 2.25:1 down to 1.5:1. 
 Anglovaals' Associated Manganese Mines of South Africa Ltd. and United States
Steel Corp. planned construction of a ferrochromium plant at Fairview, in
the Sekukuniland border area in Eastern Transvaal. The plant, scheduled to
begin operation in 1971, will produce chromium-bearing ingots and chromium
alloys from ore mined in Sekukuniland and at Zeerust. 
 Albright & Wilson Ltd. (British) acquired a 50-percent interest in Chrome
Chemicals (South Africa) Pvt. Ltd. from Farbenfabriken Bayer A. G. Both A&W
and Bayer are producers of chromium chemicals. Chrome Chemicals plans to
modernize and expand its plant, which now has a capacity of 10,000 tons of
sodium dichromate equivalent per year. 
 Turkey.—The Turkish chromite industry, which at one time consisted
of 30 ac 


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