Hole, Francis Doan, 1913-2002 / Soils of Wisconsin
Chapter 20 soil series name changes, pp. 185-186
The discipline of soil classification is as subject as any other to the phenomenon of changes in nomenclature. Dr. Charles E. Kellogg, head of the USDA Soil Survey for many years, once said: "When we stop learning about soils, we will stop changing soil names!" A soil series name, like that of a tree species, for example, stands for a whole group of characteristics. A person familiar with these can judge which soil is good for a specific crop, or stable enough to build a house or road on, or capable of ab- sorbing sewage effluent safely. The purpose of soil survey re- ports and maps is to make this kind of information available to the public, to land-use planners and to other responsible agents. Changes in soil nomenclature from bulletin to bulletin is confusing, unless a key to soil names, old and new, is pro- vided, as in Table 20-1. Two examples will help to clarify the matter. Soil nomen- clature has been changed whenever soil scientists noted that the same name was being used for two different soils in different regions. At least one of the soils had to be given a new name. Thus the Colby silt loam of Wood, Clark, and Marathon coun- ties, Wisconsin, was changed in the 1940s to Spencer silt loam, because the name Colby was in use in Kansas for a very differ- ent soil. Soon thereafter, the Spencer soil was divided into two series, a moderately well drained one, labeled Spencer, and a somewhat poorly drained one, called Almena. Subdivision of a soil series into two or more series is likely when field men con- CHAPTER 20 Soil Series Name Changes dude that a particular soil has such a wide range of properties that land-use interpretations are not specific enough for prac- tical crop, silvicultural, and engineering interpretations and recommendations. This is why the forest soil, Knox silt loam, of the early soil survey of Dane County (Whitson et al., 1917) was subdivided into the Seaton, Fayette, and Dubuque silt barns. The Dubuque silt loam was later subdivided on the basis of depth to cherty red clay and thickness of the clay over limestone bedrock into several series (see Lee et al., 1968). The name Knox is no longer used in Wisconsin. New classifications of geologic materials and scientific discoveries, such as those concerning shrink-swell potential of soil clays, may bring about recognition of new soil series and groupings of them. Table 20-1 is intended to help the reader to relate soil names of earlier published soil maps and reports to names in modern publications. Table 20-1. Listing of old soil series names with modern equivalents (Note that this list contains some familiar names such as Miami because the original series name included several modern soil series, including the named one (such as Miami) in up-to-date.) its modern restricted sense. Please consult the Soil Conservation Service to bring this list Old soil series name Ackley Acton Addison Alden Allen Amherst Arlington Astico Attica Atwater Auburn Augusta Aurorahville Au Train Baldwin Bancroft Bark Bates Baxter Bay Port Bellchester Bellefontaine Belmore Beloit. Berrien Bluffton Board man Bogus Bono Modern equivalent Spencer, Kennan Fox, Warsaw Theresa, Hochheim Hubbard Lows Kennan, Coloma Piano Sisson Chaseburg Markesan Boone Vesper Salter, Shiocton Wallace Renova Antigo, Plainfield Manistee Hesch, Sylvester Dubuque Waukegan, Dakota Boone Casco, Fox, Lapeer Fox Westville Tustin Brickton Milaca Alluvial land (sandy) Pella Old soil series name Boone Bradford Bridgman Brillion Bristol Brokaw Brownsville Burnett Cady Ca lamus Canton Carnot Carrington Cary Cashton Casimer Cassoday Catawba Celina Centerville Chelsea Clarno Modern equivalent Boone, Gale, Hixton Cushing Shawano (dune phase) Hebron Elburn Santiago LeRoy Markesan Renova, Sargeant St. Charles Calamine Solona Piano, Mendota, Sun Prairie, Saybrook Vesper Rozetta Cassel Onamia Spirit Mayville Ettrick Kenman, Emmert, Elderon (modern Chelsea is in SW. Wisconsin) Unsettled-see Cadiz Old soil series name Clayton Clinton Clyde Clyman Cochrane Cogan Colburn Colby Coloma Columbus Cooley Cornucopia Crane Crawfish Crawford Crosby Cylon Dane Dell Delphi Derinda, deep phase Detour Dodgeville, deep phase Dodgeville, shallow phase Dorchester Modern equivalent Barronett Fayette Pella, Harpster Kendall, Lamar- tine, Virgil Burkhardt Renova Altoona Almena, Spencer Plainfield, Coloma, Wyocena Puchyan Chetek, Padus Hiawatha Elburn Aztalan Sogn, Dunbarton Conover, Lamartine Santiago St. Charles Dells St. Charles Eleroy Ruse Ashdale Edmund Lawson, Arenzville 185
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