Webb, Frederick J., Jr. (ed.) / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation : May 14-15, 1992
Lee, James B.
Successful mitigation construction considerations for a 1700-acre wetland restoration in central Florida, pp. 91-103 PDF (5.6 MB)
depth of the soil-sand mixture was 0.45 m (10 inches), including 5 cm (2 inches) in the bottom of the hole prior to placement of the tree root ball. The hole diameter was twice the size of the root ball to allow for the space along side the tree's root ball to receive the top soil-sand mix as well. This allowed for new roots to grow and develop (Pirone, 1988). The top of the root ball was level, or slightly below grade, to allow surface water to collect and the trees to adjust to the new conditions. Such careful handling and transplanting steps for each tree are expected to improve the success and survival of the trees. Pirone (1988) mentions that green ash has a higher transplantability than bald cypress, red maple (medium), and swamp oak (low). Optimal conditions may include an adequate water regime, saturated soil conditions, and careful methods of transplanting. The planting operation took place during the dormant winter season to reduce leaf loss and desiccation. At planting time, the deciduous levels had not started to sprout. This advantage allowed the roots to develop and the trees to form new leaves during the spring. Approximately 1,000 trees were delivered and planted daily. The trees were placed in staging areas to be counted and checked for proper tree height, degree of root boundness, and the condition of the tree (windburn and desiccation, if any). Rejects were returned. The trees were then set out in grids using a tractor and flat bed trailer rig. The proper numbers and types of trees were placed in the designated grid near where they were to be planted, leaving approximately a 33.04 m (10 feet) between trees. Quality control was accomplished through visual inspections to ensure adequate soil mixture was used and the trees were installed properly. Rejects were flagged by the inspector and rechecked at the end of the day. In areas where there was standing water, bamboo stakes were used to hold the planted trees in place. Small ties were used to secure the saplings to the bamboo pole to prevent the trees from falling over. Nuisance Species Removal Considerations To remove the nuisance species from the site, each area was systematically inspected for exotic/nuisance species. Nuisance species found on-site included Primrose willow (Ludwigia peruviana), Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum , and the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifloiusl. Some species were flagged to ensure each tree was located and removed to a staging area. The staging area had a tarp on the ground where the nuisance species were placed during the working day. At the end of the day, the nuisance species were placed in a dumptruck and hauled to the landfill for disposal. Equipment used for this operation included a front-end loader, hand tools, backhoe, airboat, dumptruck, and manual labor. Careful considerations were needed to ensure that nuisance species seeds were not distributed or reentered into the disturbed site. The areas were revisited to ensure that all seeds were picked up from the ground to prevent any reseeding of the site. 101
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