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Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook metals, minerals, and fuels 1972
Year 1972, Volume 1 (1972)

Wells, J. Robert
Kyanite and related materials,   pp. 689-693 ff. PDF (598.6 KB)


Page 693

 KYAN1TE AND RELATED MINERALS 693 
TECHNOLOGY 
 In its annual review of materials for ceramic processing, an industrial
journal presented informative thumb-nail studies of the kyanite-group minerals
and their contributions to modern technology.6 The research program of the
Bureau of Mines included an investigation of beneficiation procedures applicable
to kyanite-bearing materials from Idaho. A patent was issued for a process
by which kyanite or other aluminosiicate ores can be treated with chlorine
' to volatilize undesired iron and titanium, leaving residues enriched in
aluminum and silicon that can be smelted to produce alloys of these two elements.7
 Mullite, synthesized from pure silica and Bayer-process alumina (at least
99% Al203) and then shaped into spheres, was the refractory catalyst-support
base selected for a catalytic-cracking process for the production of synthetic
pipeline gas.8 A tabulation was published listing the physical, mechanical,
and electrical properties, maximum recommended service temperatures, and
practical applications of certain special-purpose ceramics of the refractory
mullite type.9 
 A series of articles in a British journal presented a wide-ranging study
of modern refractories and of the technology of their production and utilization.
Prominently featured among the materials discussed were the kyanite—mullite
group of refractories. Included in one of the reports was a useful world-wide
listing of principal refractories manufacturers.10 
 A number of articles were published dealing with theoretical and experimental
considerations of potential importance for the future development of kyanite—mullite
refractories technology.11 
 An article reviewed technologic criteria for choosing types of refractories
for a specified application. Considerations discussed for mullite and other
applicable materials included thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, specific
heat, emissivity, bulk density, porosity-permeability, thermalshock resistance,
creep, and crushing strength and modulus of rupture at different temperatures.
More briefly treated were 
the topics of refractory life expectancy and comparative costs.12 
 The installations, equipment, and methods in use by a major producer of
mullite refractories were subjects dealt with in a two-part magazine article.13
New facilities for the development of refractories technology were placed
in service by a leading industrial refractories manufacturer, Kaiser Refractories.
The Clay-Alumina Development and Applications section of the new facility
specializes in research on aluminosilicate materials, including mullite.14
 6 Ceramic Industry Magazine. V. 100, No. 1, 
January 1973; Andalusite, p. 39; Dumortierite, p. 
62; Kyanite, p. 74; Mullite, p. 88; Sillimanite, p 
102; and Topaz, p. 111. 
 Hildreth, C. L. (assigned to Ethyl Corp.). Chloridizing Alumina-Containing
Ore. U.S. Pat. 3,704,113, Nov. 28, 1972. 
 8 Ceramic Age. Mullite Balls Help Produce SNG. V. 89, No. 1, January 1973,
p. 4. 
 ' Materials Engineering. Mechanical and Electrical Ceramics-Fired Parts.
V. 76, No. 4, September 1972, p. 366. 
 10 Industrial Minerals (London). An Introduction to Refractories. No. 58,
July 1972, pp. 9—23. 
 Refractory Raw Materials—The Producers Reviewed. No. 59, August 1972,
pp. 9—19. 
 The UK Refractories Industry. No. 61, October 1972, pp. 9—31. 
 Refractories in the USA. No. 62, November 1972, pp. 9—11, 13—14,
17, 19—23, 25, 
27. 
 11 Davis, Robert F., Ilhan A. Aksay, and Joseph 
A. Pask. Decomposition of Mullite. J Am. 
Ceram. Soc., v. 55, No. 2, February 1972, pp. 
98—101. 
 Davis, Robert F., and Joseph A. Pask. Diffusion and Reaction Studies in
the System A120aSiO2. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., v. 55, No. 10, October 1972, pp.
525—531. 
 MacKenzie, K. J. D. Infrared Frequency Calculations for Ideal Mullite (3AllOl.2SiOl).
J. Am. Ceram. Soc., v. 55, No. 2, February 1972, pp. 
68—71. 
 Mazdiyasni, K. S., and L. M. Brown. Synthesis and Mechanical Properties
of Stoichiometric Aluminum Silicate (Mullite). J. Am. Ceram. Soc., v. 55,
No. 11, November 1972, pp. 548—552. 
 McGee, Thomas D., and C. D. Wirkus. Mulhtization of Alumino-Silicate Gels.
Am. Ceram. 
Soc. Bull., v. 51, No. 7, July 1972, pp. 577—581. 
 Penty, R. A., D. P. H. Hasselman, and R. M. Spriggs. Young's Modulus of
High-Density Polycrystalline Mullite. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., v. 55, No. 3, March
1972, pp. 169—170. 
 12 Russell G. A., Jr. Selection of Refractories for Modern Blast Furnace
Stoves. Iron and Steel Eng., v. 49, No. 2, February 1972, pp. 42—48.
 ' 3 Jeffers, P.E. CE Refractories—Part 1, A Profile on Progress; Part
2, An Organization of Specialists. Brick & Clay Record, v. 161, Nos.
1 and 2, July and August 1972, pp. 31—37, 43—44; and 
17—21, respectively. 
 l4Jeffers, P. E. Kaiser Consolidates Research sn New $25-Million Lab. Brick
& Clay Record, v. 160, No. 3, March 1972, pp. 26—27. 


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