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Hole, Francis Doan, 1913-2002 / Soils of Wisconsin

Lee, Gerhard B.
Chapter 16 soil region J: soils of stream bottoms and major wetlands,   pp. 115-122

Page 119

        Soil Region J   119
glaciation, allows for few wetland sites. Most are in oxbows of
meandering streams on bottomlands, at seepage sites on foot-
slopes, marshlands of flood plains, and in tributary valleys that
were blocked at the confluence by massive deposits of outwash
in the Wisconsin or Mississippi River valleys. A few wet mineral
soils are on broad uplands.
  On the soil map, wetlands are divided into two general
classes. One of these, the wet mineral soils, includes soil as-
sociations J3 through 111 (Fig. 16-2). The other, consisting
primarily of organic soils (peat and muck), includes soil asso-
ciations J12 through 115 (Fig. 16-2).
Wet Mineral Soils
13. Gran by, Shawano, and Emmet loamy sand and sandy
loam, and shallow peat.
  The wet Granby loamy sand (Typic Haplaquoll) predomi-
nates, and is associated with Shawano loamy sand (Typic
Udipsamment) and Emmet sandy loam (Alfic Haplorthod) on
rises and with shallow peat in depressions.
  These soils occur principally along the southwest shore of
Green Bay in areas formerly occupied by Lake Michigan at
higher water levels following glaciation. Water tables are gen-
erally high and the soils have drab, mottled sub soils as a result.
The soils are only slightly acid in reaction in the solum and they
support a good growth of coniferous and hardwood vegetation.
J4. Newton, Pla infield, and Morocco sand and loamy sand, and
shallow peat.
  Between the wet Newton (Typic Hum aquept) and excessively
drained Plainfield (Typic Udipsamment) lies the less extensive
Morocco (Aquic Udipsamment) sand.
  This group of sandy soils, which range from very wet to ex-
cessively drained and include areas of shallow peat, occurs in
Portage County (near the Buena Vista Marsh) and in Adams
and Juneau counties. It occurs in a landscape with only a few
feet of microrelief. Small ridges are occupied by the excessively
drained Plainfield (Typic Udipsamment) soils and the mod-
erately well drained Nekoosa soils, while at slightly lower eleva-
tions somewhat poorly drained Morocco (Aquic Udipsamment)
and Newton (Typic Humaquept) soils occur on nearly level
slopes. Numerous shallow depressions are filled with 1 to 2 feet
of acid peat formed from reed and sedge materials (Adrian
peat, Terric Medisaprist). The mineral soils in this association
are extremely sandy. They have no visible textural B horizon
and the chief variations are in the amount of organic matter
which is accumulated in the surface and the degree of gleying
and mottling of the subsoil. Some are used for cranberry
15. Newton, Morocco, and Au Gres sands, and shallow peat.
  The  sands  are Typic Humaquepts  (Newton), Aquic
Udipsamments (Morocco), and Entic Haplaquods (Au Gres).
There are a variety of Histosols (peats).
  These soils occupy wet plains and shallow bogs in central
Wisconsin. Morocco and Au Gres soils are somewhat poorly
drained, Newton soils are poorly drained, and peat is saturated
with water for most of each year. All of the mineral soils are
very sandy. Morocco soils have a thick black A horizon on
mottled sand. The Bir and A2 horizons of Au Gres are dis-
tinctive. All horizons are acid and pH values may be as low as
4.0 in some horizons of Au Gres sand and peat. The peat is
formed mostly from remains of reed and sedge materials. In-
cluded in the area are small islands of sandy soils, such as
Nekoosa, which are less affected by ground water than are the
major soils. The poor soil drainage severely limits farming.
  On the shore of Lake Michigan in Sheboygan County this soil
association includes sand dunes, both stabilized and active.
16. Cable, Monico, Auburndale, and Freer barns and silt
loam, and peat.
  These silty soils are Typic Haplaquepts (Cable, Warman),
Aquic Dystrochrepts (Monico), Typic Glossaqualfs (Auburn-
dale), and Aeric Ochraqualfs (Freer); they are associated with
Hemists (peat).
  These wet soils occupy depressions in glacial drift in a broad
belt across northern Wisconsin. Several other loamy or sandy
soils with restricted drainage are associated. Many bodies too
small to show on the soil map occur in this region. All of these
soils are somewhat poorly, poorly, or very poorly drained. Peats
are acid and may vary considerably in depth and degree of de-
composition. Most peat consists of remains of reeds and sedges
with some included wood.
17. Wauseon, Keowns, Tustin, and Rimer loams and sandy
  The wet Wauseon (Typic Haplaquoll) and Keowns (Mollic
Haplaquept) soils predominate over the better drained Tustin
(Arenic Hapludalf) and Rimer (Arenic Ochraqualt). These
soils are in wetlands scattered from Shawano to Sauk counties.
  The soils have formed in stratified lake sediments of silt to
sand texture. Among associated soils are the Shiocton, Salter,
and Seward. Shiocton and Keowns soils are coarse silts with
weak horizonation and drab mottled colors. They liquify easily
and cannot be drained with tile. Tustin, Rimer, and Wauseon
soils consist of sandy loam or loam upper strata over clay loam
strata of variable thickness. Tustin is well drained, Rimer
somewhat poorly drained, and Wauseon poorly drained.
  In Columbia County, Granby sandy loam and some alluvial
lands are included in this unit (McColley, 1971).
18. Pella, Brookston. and Virgil silt loam and silty clay loam.
  These are the predominant black silty wetland soils of south-
eastern Wisconsin. The naturally poorly drained Pella (formerly
called Kokomo and Elba) is a Haplaquoll and Brookston is a
Typic Argiaquoll. The Virgil (Mollic Ochraqualt) and asso-
ciated Kendall and Lamartine soils are somewhat poorly
drained under natural conditions.
  These soils occur in depressions of glacial uplands in south-
eastern and south-central Wisconsin (Fig. 8-13). The depres-
sions differ from those described in 115 principally by being
occupied largely by mineral soils rather than by muck and peat.
The Pella and Brookston soils have thick black Al horizons
and dark gray B horizons of silty clay loam texture. Brookston
soils have poorly sorted gravelly drift at depths of 2 or 3 feet,
while Pella soils consist of moderately fine sediments through-
out. Virgil soils are silty throughout and occur at the up-slope

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