Hole, Francis Doan, 1913-2002 / Soils of Wisconsin
Lee, Gerhard B.
Chapter 16 soil region J: soils of stream bottoms and major wetlands, pp. 115-122
Soil Region J 119 glaciation, allows for few wetland sites. Most are in oxbows of meandering streams on bottomlands, at seepage sites on foot- slopes, marshlands of flood plains, and in tributary valleys that were blocked at the confluence by massive deposits of outwash in the Wisconsin or Mississippi River valleys. A few wet mineral soils are on broad uplands. On the soil map, wetlands are divided into two general classes. One of these, the wet mineral soils, includes soil as- sociations J3 through 111 (Fig. 16-2). The other, consisting primarily of organic soils (peat and muck), includes soil asso- ciations J12 through 115 (Fig. 16-2). Wet Mineral Soils 13. Gran by, Shawano, and Emmet loamy sand and sandy loam, and shallow peat. The wet Granby loamy sand (Typic Haplaquoll) predomi- nates, and is associated with Shawano loamy sand (Typic Udipsamment) and Emmet sandy loam (Alfic Haplorthod) on rises and with shallow peat in depressions. These soils occur principally along the southwest shore of Green Bay in areas formerly occupied by Lake Michigan at higher water levels following glaciation. Water tables are gen- erally high and the soils have drab, mottled sub soils as a result. The soils are only slightly acid in reaction in the solum and they support a good growth of coniferous and hardwood vegetation. J4. Newton, Pla infield, and Morocco sand and loamy sand, and shallow peat. Between the wet Newton (Typic Hum aquept) and excessively drained Plainfield (Typic Udipsamment) lies the less extensive Morocco (Aquic Udipsamment) sand. This group of sandy soils, which range from very wet to ex- cessively drained and include areas of shallow peat, occurs in Portage County (near the Buena Vista Marsh) and in Adams and Juneau counties. It occurs in a landscape with only a few feet of microrelief. Small ridges are occupied by the excessively drained Plainfield (Typic Udipsamment) soils and the mod- erately well drained Nekoosa soils, while at slightly lower eleva- tions somewhat poorly drained Morocco (Aquic Udipsamment) and Newton (Typic Humaquept) soils occur on nearly level slopes. Numerous shallow depressions are filled with 1 to 2 feet of acid peat formed from reed and sedge materials (Adrian peat, Terric Medisaprist). The mineral soils in this association are extremely sandy. They have no visible textural B horizon and the chief variations are in the amount of organic matter which is accumulated in the surface and the degree of gleying and mottling of the subsoil. Some are used for cranberry production. 15. Newton, Morocco, and Au Gres sands, and shallow peat. The sands are Typic Humaquepts (Newton), Aquic Udipsamments (Morocco), and Entic Haplaquods (Au Gres). There are a variety of Histosols (peats). These soils occupy wet plains and shallow bogs in central Wisconsin. Morocco and Au Gres soils are somewhat poorly drained, Newton soils are poorly drained, and peat is saturated with water for most of each year. All of the mineral soils are very sandy. Morocco soils have a thick black A horizon on mottled sand. The Bir and A2 horizons of Au Gres are dis- tinctive. All horizons are acid and pH values may be as low as 4.0 in some horizons of Au Gres sand and peat. The peat is formed mostly from remains of reed and sedge materials. In- cluded in the area are small islands of sandy soils, such as Nekoosa, which are less affected by ground water than are the major soils. The poor soil drainage severely limits farming. On the shore of Lake Michigan in Sheboygan County this soil association includes sand dunes, both stabilized and active. 16. Cable, Monico, Auburndale, and Freer barns and silt loam, and peat. These silty soils are Typic Haplaquepts (Cable, Warman), Aquic Dystrochrepts (Monico), Typic Glossaqualfs (Auburn- dale), and Aeric Ochraqualfs (Freer); they are associated with Hemists (peat). These wet soils occupy depressions in glacial drift in a broad belt across northern Wisconsin. Several other loamy or sandy soils with restricted drainage are associated. Many bodies too small to show on the soil map occur in this region. All of these soils are somewhat poorly, poorly, or very poorly drained. Peats are acid and may vary considerably in depth and degree of de- composition. Most peat consists of remains of reeds and sedges with some included wood. 17. Wauseon, Keowns, Tustin, and Rimer loams and sandy loam. The wet Wauseon (Typic Haplaquoll) and Keowns (Mollic Haplaquept) soils predominate over the better drained Tustin (Arenic Hapludalf) and Rimer (Arenic Ochraqualt). These soils are in wetlands scattered from Shawano to Sauk counties. The soils have formed in stratified lake sediments of silt to sand texture. Among associated soils are the Shiocton, Salter, and Seward. Shiocton and Keowns soils are coarse silts with weak horizonation and drab mottled colors. They liquify easily and cannot be drained with tile. Tustin, Rimer, and Wauseon soils consist of sandy loam or loam upper strata over clay loam strata of variable thickness. Tustin is well drained, Rimer somewhat poorly drained, and Wauseon poorly drained. In Columbia County, Granby sandy loam and some alluvial lands are included in this unit (McColley, 1971). 18. Pella, Brookston. and Virgil silt loam and silty clay loam. These are the predominant black silty wetland soils of south- eastern Wisconsin. The naturally poorly drained Pella (formerly called Kokomo and Elba) is a Haplaquoll and Brookston is a Typic Argiaquoll. The Virgil (Mollic Ochraqualt) and asso- ciated Kendall and Lamartine soils are somewhat poorly drained under natural conditions. These soils occur in depressions of glacial uplands in south- eastern and south-central Wisconsin (Fig. 8-13). The depres- sions differ from those described in 115 principally by being occupied largely by mineral soils rather than by muck and peat. The Pella and Brookston soils have thick black Al horizons and dark gray B horizons of silty clay loam texture. Brookston soils have poorly sorted gravelly drift at depths of 2 or 3 feet, while Pella soils consist of moderately fine sediments through- out. Virgil soils are silty throughout and occur at the up-slope
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