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Browse the series: Technical bulletin (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources)

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Kabat, Cyril; Thompson, Donald R.; Kozlik, Frank M. Device for dating natural events in game animals (1950)

Kabat, Cyril; Thompson, Donald R.; Kozlik, Frank M. Pheasant weights and wing molt in relation to reproduction with survival implications (1950)

Stanz, Harry E., Jr. Improved rations and feeding procedures for pheasants (1952)

Recent Wisconsin studies on hunting season returns from artificially propagated pheasants released in the wild have shown a much higher recovery rate than has been previously reported. Hunter checks in the years 1948 to 1950 in southern Wisconsin showed that an average of 54 per cent of released pheasant cocks were taken by hunters (Kabat, Kozlik and Thompson, unpublished data compiled by Wisconsin Pittman-Robertson project 9-R). This is considerably higher than the 5 per cent return found by Tubbs (1946) in Michigan from 1935 to 1940. The Wisconsin studies have also indicated that artificially propagated hens released in spring play an important role in maintaining a relatively high shootable population through their contribution to the year's wild pheasant hatch.

Stollberg, Bruce P.; Hine, Ruth L. Food habit studies of ruffed grouse, pheasant, quail and mink in Wisconsin (1952)

Knowledge of the seasonal food habits of Wisconsin animals has numerous blank pages. Many of our sportsmen are unaware of the feeding requirements of the game they hunt, and many conservationists cannot answer the questions that food habits pose with regard to the actual food and cover needs of faltering species. Food habit studies are important not only in determining the food preferences of a particular species, but also in discerning the food relationships existing between the animals in a community.

Mathiak, Harold A. Experimental level ditching for muskrat management (1953)

In order to determine what level ditch spacings result in the maximum production of muskrats, four series of experimental level ditches were dredged in a "dry marsh" portion of the Horicon Marsh Wildlife Area. The benefits to muskrats of level ditches are many. In this portion of the marsh, there often is not enough water to allow muskrats to obtain food throughout the critical winter period. The deep water of the ditches makes it possible for muskrats to obtain food such as submerged aquatics or fish despite thick ice, and the high spoilbanks offer more protection from freeze-outs than the average-size muskrat house. During summer drouth periods when other surface water is not available, the depth of the water in the ditches holds muskrats in a marsh. Furthermore, during flood periods spoilbanks hold muskrates in the ditched area by offering resting sites, feeding places, and shelter.

Richards, Stephen H.; Hine, Ruth L. Wisconsin fox populations (1953)

Red and gray foxes are abundant in Wisconsin now and hold a position in the forefront of the wildlife community. In order to gain insight into fox management problems within the state, a study was carried on from 1946-1950 to investigate fox population status, productivity, food habits, and control methods.

Kabat, Cyril; Collias, Nicholas E.; Guettinger, Ralph C. Some winter habits of white-tailed deer and the development of census methods in the flag yard of northern Wisconsin (1953)

One of the first phases of intensive deer range management is to get specific information on the behavior of deer in winter problem areas. Chances for making studies of deer behavior in the wild are somewhat limited. The winter of 1952, however, presented us with a unique opportunity for such a study, both from the standpoint of yarding conditions and trained personnel to make observations on deer.

Dorney, Robert S.; Rusch, Alan J. Muskrat growth and litter production (1953)

To determine the successs of a breeding season, it is necessary to know the number of young produced, when they are produced, and their relative survival rates. For muskrats (Ondatra zibethica), one method used to estimate the number of young produced is to count litters in muskrat houses throughout the breeding season. Litters varying in age from newly born to 30 days old are commonly handled when muskrat houses are opened. To calculate the birth dates of these litters and their relative survival rates, it is essential that accurate aging criteria be developed. Thus a knowledge of muskrat kit growth rates is needed to determine the success of a muskrat breeding season.

Hale, James B.; Wendt, Robert F.; Halazon, George C. Sex and age criteria for Wisconsin ruffed grouse (1954)

If game management is to be evaluated, it must have yardsticks by which its success can be measured. One of these yardsticks should concern productivity, defined by Leopold (1933) as the rate at which breeding stock produces more breeding stock or a removable crop. An important step in determining the productivity of any game species is learning how to identify the sex and age of individual animals. Without such criteria, productivity analysis is next to impossible.

Mathiak, Harold A.; Linde, Arlyn F. Role of refuges in muskrat management (1954)

Wisconsin with its abundant waterways and marshes has long been a leading producer of muskrats. In the peak year of 1952, over one and one-fourth million muskrats were harvested, thereby providing considerable income to trappers and others handling furs or trapping supplies. The size of the catch in any one year not only depends on the level of the muskrat population, but may be greatly influenced by weather conditions, trapping season limitations, and general economic conditions such as pelt prices and employment levels.

Kabat, Cyril; Kozlik, Frank M.; Thompson, Donald R. Evaluation of stocking breeder hen and immature cock pheasants on Wisconsin public hunting grounds (1955)

After almost 10 years of annual population increase, Wisconsin's pheasant population began to decline in the early 1940's. This decline occurred despite relatively large releases of game-farm-reared pheasants. However, since the Wisconsin pheasant population, as well as the continental population, was originally established by releasing pheasants into the wild which were reared under captivity, it appeared that it would be gainful to continue this program. It was on this premise that Wisconsin continued to expand its artificial propagation program up to about the time of the population decline.

Mathiak, Harold A.; Linde, Arlyn F. Studies on level ditching for marsh management (1956)

In order to determine what level ditch spacings result in the maximum production of muskrats, the economics involved, and the benefits of level ditching to other species of wildlife, four series of experimental level ditches were dredged in a "dry marsh" portion of the Horicon Marsh Wildlife Area.

Kabat, Cyril; Meyer, R. K.; Flakas, Kenneth G. Seasonal variation in stress resistance and survival in the hen pheasant (1956)

The size of Wisconsin's pheasant population is dependent primarily upon two things: the condition of the habitat and the pheasant's inherent capacity to sruvive the rigors of unfavorable environment. The state is currently effecting a program to improve and manage both the pheasant and its habitat. Habitat developed especially for wildlife, however, is costly. It is therefore of great importance, particularly in view of the variations in land use, to know specifically how much of a certain habitat type, e.g. for feeding, nesting, resting, or cover, is essential to sustaining or increasing wildlife crops.

Dahlberg, B. L.; Guettinger, Ralph C. The white-tailed deer in Wisconsin (1956)

Throughout most of Wisconsin's conservation history we had a very simple objective concerning the white-tailed deer: produce more deer. In this effort we succeeded remarkably well.

Hamerstrom, F. N., Jr.; Mattson, Oswald E.; Hamerstrom, Frances A guide to prairie chicken management (1957)

The Conservation Commission's "The Wisconsin Prairie Grouse Management Policy", adopted May 14, 1953, calls for an action program in the interest of prairie chickens and sharptails--"Consistent with . . . statutory obligations, in establishment of a policy for the management of Wisconsin prairie grouse, it is considered basic that every reasonable effort be made to maintain a huntable population through management and restoration of habitat for these birds in the state and to assure their presence for future generations." We offer herewith a management plan for the prairie chicken or pinnated grouse (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus).

Hunt, Richard A.; Jahn, Laurence R.; Hopkins, Ralph C. An evaluation of artificial mallard propagation in Wisconsin (1958)

The Conservation Department, largely as a result of sportsmen's interest, established a trial project to investigate artificial mallard propagation under Wisconsin conditions. The production of young birds, selection of suitable release sites, recovery of banded birds, field observations on behavior and the determination of the cost of artificial propagation were the major problems studied in order to furnish basic information to game administrators, sportsmen and wildlife technicians.

Johnson, Leon D. Pond culture of muskellunge in Wisconsin (1958)

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy immaculatus) is the most spectacular large game fish found in Wisconsin. Artificial propagation is one method used in an attempt to augment existing lake populations. Some of the findings from studies conducted during 1953 through 1957 coupled with the best of past practices have been applied at the Spooner and Woodruff hatcheries to formulate improved cultural procedures.

Dorney, Robert S. Relationship of ruffed grouse to forest cover types in Wisconsin (1959)

During the past 20 years sharp-tailed grouse (Pedioecetes phasianellus) and pinnated grouse (Tympanuchus cupido) have steadily declined in Wisconsin as a result of changing land-use patterns. On the other hand, ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in Wisconsin have increased since the middle thirties, and at present are one of the major game birds in this state. This population increase coincides with the regrowth of forests following the fires and logging that occurred in the period 1900-1938. To determine how to maintain these favorable environmental conditions, basic research on the habitat requirements of ruffed grouse was needed. This information could then be integrated with forest management and silvicultural practices. Since the grouse habitat work of Bump, Darrow, Edminster and Crissey (1947) in New York and Hungerford (1953) in Idaho was done in forest types quite different from those in the Lake States, it was felt that a reappraisal of their results was needed before a management program could be initiated in Wisconsin.

Hussain, Ali; Shenefelt, R. D.; Benjamin, Daniel M.; Smith, Philip W.; Bachman, Ronald L. The hemlock borer; the European pine shoot moth and its relation to pines in Wisconsin (1959)

Dorney, Robert S.; Kabat, Cyril Relation of weather, parasitic disease and hunting to Wisconsin ruffed grouse populations (1960)

Population fluctuations of both mammals and birds in the northern hemisphere have attracted the attention of many animal ecologists, particularly since many of these fluctuations are supposedly "cyclic" or rhythmic in nature. According to many observers (Leopold, 1929; Schorger, 1945; Grange, 1948) ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in Wisconsin exhibit a similar cyclic fluctuation. A 10-year population research study was started in 1949 in northern Wisconsin to collect data on some of the potential underlying factors, and evaluate the relationship of these to drastic changes in numbers. In particular, we concentrated on measuring population density, yearly reproductive success, annual mortality, movement, and parasit-disease relationships.

Shenefelt, R. D.; Jones, P. A. Forest insect surveys within specified areas (1960)

Forest insect surveys are important factors in the economy of managed forests. The emphasis which sampling of forest insects has been receiving lately is shown by the papers being published dealing with techniques. The more intensively a forest is managed the greater the need for surveys which will reveal or help to anticipate insect outbreaks. The losses caused from insect epidemics can be enormous and have been calculated in particular instances. As management costs increase and are added to the total investment in each acre of forest, the challenge to the forest entomologist becomes greater to develop survey techniques which will yield the greatest returns for the minimum expenditure of time and money. In this paper, concepts and methods utilized in a preliminary survey are discussed. It is hoped that this will lead thoughts of others toward the bases for establishing a forest-insect-detection survey within a limited area.

Hutchins, H. Clifton; Trecker, Edgar W., Jr. The state park visitor: a report of the Wisconsin park and forest travel study (1961)

Since the last World War the number of visitors to the state parks of Wisconsin has increased at an accelerating rate. These large number of visitors have served to emphasize the inadequacies in space, facilities for serving the public and maintenance of the parks. Such conditions led to this study.

Hovind, H. J.; Rieck, C. E. Basal area and point-sampling: interpretation and application (1970)

The management of forest stands dictates that the forester have some reliable measure of expressing stocking. Stocking is described by many methods such as percentage of cover, volume per acre, stems per acre and basal area per acre. With some of these methods, stocking levels have not always been clearly or accurately described.

Burger, George V. Licensed shooting preserves in Wisconsin (1962)

Shooting preserves have been defined as "any land on which a man is given special permission to hunt" (Schorger, 1955) and, more explicitly, as "privately owned and operated areas on which pen-reared game is released for hunting" (Dickey, 1957). Neither definition mentions that shooting preserves must be licensed by the state in which they exist, and must comply with specific state regulations. Essentially, then, shooting preserves are privately owned areas, licensed by the state, on which some form of liberalized hunting of pen-reared game is permitted.

Knudsen, George J. Relationship of beaver to forests, trout and wildlife in Wisconsin (1962)

It has long been recognized that beaver impoundments influence the habitats of hundreds of species of plants and animals, and that this alteration of environment exerts both harmful and beneficial effects on various important wildlife species and lowland plant communities. Although a few objective studies have been made of certain of these interrelating phenomena, the literature for the most part contains general statements based on subjective observations.

Hunt, Robert L.; Brynildson, Oscar M.; McFadden, James T. Effects of angling regulations on a wild brook trout fishery (1962)

The effects of different angling regulations on a wild brook trout population and fishery were studied at Lawrence Creek, which contains a dense population of this species and has a reputation for "good trout fishing".

Wilson, F. G. Fifty years from seed: the Star Lake plantation (1963)

Besadny, Carroll D.; Wagner, Frederic H. An evaluation of pheasant stocking through the day-old-chick program in Wisconsin (1963)

Pheasant stocking in Wisconsin is centered on a day-old-chick program. Pheasant chicks are given by the Wisconsin Conservation Department to sportsmen's clubs which rear the birds for release on lands open to public hunting. In recent years about 175,000 pheasants have been stocked annually through this program.

Linde, Arlyn F. Muskrat pelt patterns and primeness (1963)

1. A study of hair growth and pelage changes in muskrats from Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin, has resulted in revision of the traditional concept of the priming process. Pelt collections used in this study included: 868 pelts from immature, known-age muskrats and 85 pelts from known-age adults taken during the regular fall and winter trapping seasons; 143 summer-trapped pelts of unknown-ages; and 33 nestling kits between 1 and 30 days old.

Kabat, Cyril.; Thompson, Donald R. Wisconsin quail 1834-1962: population dynamics and habitat management (1963)

During the period from 1829 to 1962, the quail population of Wisconsin reached a peak level in the mid-1850's and then stedily declined, interrupted only by recurring peaks at successively lower amplitudes. The decline from 1937 to 1962 was directly correlated with a loss of hedgerow cover. On the major study area of 4,500 acres at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, the population fell from a high of 433 birds in 1933 to 0 in 1959.

Mraz, Donald Evaluation of liberalized regulations on largemouth bass, Browns Lake, Wisconsin (1964)

The effects of liberalized angling regulations (no size limit and an earlier opening) on a largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) population were evaluated over a six-year period (1952-57) at Browns Lake, Racine County, Wisconsin.

Churchill, Warren S.; Snow, Howard E. Characteristics of the sport fishery in some northern Wisconsin lakes (1964)

This paper summarizes certain information on the fisheries of two research projects on waters of northern Wisconsin. These projects, Five Lakes and Murphy Flowage, were established in 1946 and 1955, respectively, to study fish populations and the effect on them of various management procedures. This led to a study of angling practices and variations in fishing pressure and success that might influence the results of management. In view of the importance of the sport fishery in northern Wisconsin, it was felt that this information would also be of interest to all who are connected with the tourist industry and recreational planning.

Laurence, R. Jahn; Hunt, Richard A. Duck and coot ecology and management in Wisconsin (1964)

The over-all objective of Wisconsin's duck and coot habitat and population investigations was to develop guidelines for managing seasonal duck and coot populations.

Wagner, Frederic H.; Besadny, Carroll D.; Kabat, Cyril Population ecology and management of Wisconsin pheasants (1965)

Extensive pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)population surveys were begun by the Wisconsin Conservation Department in the years following World War II. Among their objectives were the provision of information on: (1) the regional pattern of population distribution and productivity in the state and the relations of these to habitat characteristics; (2) short-term fluctuations and the mechanisms and factors involved; and (3) the extent of hunting take and its effect on the populations.

Hunt, Robert L. Production and angler harvest of wild brook trout in Lawrence Creek, Wisconsin (1966)

Production (total growth in weight by all fish in the population during a given time period including growth by fish that died during the period) of wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)in Lawrence Creek was calculated monthly during 1960-64, for all age groups, and throughout the lifespan of the 1959-61 year classes. Contemporary statistics on the sport fishery were derived from a compulsory creel census. Three trout population estimates made annually with electrofishing gear provided the basic data for estimating monthly numerical densities. Growth data were collected monthly from known-age trout during 1963 and in April, June, and September during all other years.

Mathiak, Harold A. Muskrat population studies at Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin (1966)

Research on muskrat populations was conducted from 1946 to 1963 on the 10,857-acre state-owned portion of Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin. The objective of this research was to gather biological data which would form a scientific and practical basis for muskrat management in the state. Muskrat population biology was studied mainly by following the fate of more than 6,000 muskrats ear-tagged as kits.

Kleinert, Stanton J.; Mraz, Donald Life history of the grass pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus) in southeastern Wisconsin (1966)

Three species of the genus Esox occur in Wisconsin: the muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, the northern pike, Esox lucius, and the grass pickerel, Esox americanus vermiculatus. Muskellunge are chiefly confined to northern Wisconsin, while northern pike occur statewide. Grass pickerel have a southern distribution in the state, although in recent years the species has become established in some waters in northeastern Wisconsin. The first two species, because of their large size and desirability to the angler, have been the object of research studies and substantial fish management effort in the form of stocking and angling restrictions. Until the present paper, study of pickerel in Wisconsin has been confined to observations of distribution and habitat.

Hunt, Richard A.; Jahn, Laurence R. Canada goose breeding populations in Wisconsin (1966)

The Canada goose (Branta canadensis)was a common species in the original fauna of Wisconsin. It bred in considerable numbers and was an important migrant in spring and fall. Year-round hunting, stealing of eggs and young, and habitat destruction had largely eliminated the breeding population by about 1900. Re-establishment of local breeding flocks had occurred in the Green Bay area by the early 1930's from geese maintained by a private game breeder, and in central Wisconsin marshes in the early 1940's from geese in a restoration project on the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge and from birds escaping from a private game breeder.

White, Ray J.; Brynildson, Oscar M. Guidelines for management of trout stream habitat in Wisconsin (1967)

Much can be done to improve trout fishing by making streams more suitable places for these fish to live. The need is obvious on many streams. In this bulletin we present some principles and techniques to guide fish managers toward achievement of that objective.

Mraz, Donald Recruitment, growth, exploitation and management of walleyes in a southeastern Wisconsin lake (1968)

A population study of walleyes in 522-acre Pike Lake in southern Wisconsin was undertaken from 1959-62. Fyke nets were fished to obtain samples for growth and exploitation data while electrofishing gear was used to obtain fish for population estimates of young-of-the-year and yearlings. Petersen and Schnabel estimating methods suggested a reasonably stable recruitment of 5 to 10 young-of-the-year fish per acre in Pike Lake during the study period. Although estimates of both young-of-the-year and yearling walleyes showed a substantial mortality the second year, fluctuation in strength of the individual year classes and the variation in mortality tended to balance each other resulting in consistent recruitment of new fish to the population.

Kleinert, Stanton J.; Degurse, Paul E.; Wirth, Thomas L. Occurrence and significance of DDT and dieldrin residues in Wisconsin fish (1968)

The chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides usually reach our waters in concentrations that are not fatal to fish. Unfortunately, these substances tend to accumulate in the environment and may persist in the toxic form for years, becoming absorbed in plants and animals and adsorbed [sic] on soils. When present in sufficient concentrations, toxic residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have been shown to change behavior, interfere with reproduction, and kill a variety of animal life. This group of pesticides constituted approximately 52 percent of all insecticides and 30 percent of all pesticides produced in the United States in 1965 as indicated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Review (1966). It is officially estimated that in the United States, agricultural chemicals were responsible for 32 percent of all known sources of fish kills in 1960, 21 percent in 1961, and 18 percent in 1962 (Tarzwell, 1965).

Johnson, Leon D. Food of angler-caught northern pike in Murphy Flowage (1969)

The research described in this report was intended to provide basic information on northern pike feeding habits. Current efforts to increase populations of northern pike, Esox lucius (Linnaeus), are often based upon the assumption that they can control stunted panfish populations. This study was designed, in part, to determine whether or not this assumption is valid in regard to bluegills.

Priegel, Gordon R. The Lake Winnebago sauger: age, growth, reproduction, food habits and early life history (1969)

The abundant but little known sauger in Lake Winnebago was studied from 1957-1967 to obtain life history information.

McCaffery, Keith R.; Creed, William A. Significance of forest openings to deer in northern Wisconsin (1969)

The role of forest openings in summer deer range was studied in northern Wisconsin from 1959 to 1968 to determine the need, size, type and placement of openings for deer, determine the relationships between deer population levels and forest cover types, and develop guidelines for maintaining summer range sufficient to support satisfactory deer population levels.

Priegel, Gordon R. Reproduction and early life history of the walleye in the Lake Winnebago region (1970)

Because the walleye is the most sought-after game fish in Lake Winnebago and connecting waters, its early life history was studied from 1959 to 1967 to determine factors affecting spawning success, egg development and fry survival. Areas studied included spawning sites on the west shore of Lake Winnebago and numerous spawning marshes along the Fox and Wolf rivers.

Pierce, Ned D. Inland lake dredging evaluation (1970)

The continued deterioration of many lakes in the Upper Great Lakes Region is a principal cause for concern by many responsible citizen and governmental groups. It is becoming more apparent that strict management and renewal techniques are necessary to protect and improve our limited surface water resource. Dredging, as one method of renewing a lake, is believed to have merit in improvement of the lake environment. Lake dredging on a large scale is a recent innovation. Literature on the dredging industry is meager, and literature on the application of hydraulic dredging to lake improvement is almost nonexistent.

Priegel, Gordon R. Evaluation of intensive freshwater drum removal in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, 1955-1966 (1971)

An intensive freshwater drum removal program was undertaken on Lake Winnebago with the assistance of qualified commercial fishermen in 1955. A 12-year evaluation study, 1955-1966, was initiated at the start of the intensive removal program to evaluate the effects of freshwater drum removal on the freshwater drum population and other fish species.

Hunt, Robert L. Responses of a brook trout population to habitat development in Lawrence Creek (1971)

Man-made modifications of trout habitat in the upper mile (section A) of Lawrence Creek were followed by significant increases in standing crops of wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), angler use, and yield. During the 3 years (1965-67) after completion of development, average annual biomass of age 0 and older trout was 41% greater than the average for the 3-year predevelopment period (1961-63). Biomass of age I and older trout increased by an average of 57% and biomass of age II+ trout increased by an average of 141%. An obvious stockpiling effect was evident, a result primarily of improved overwinter survival after development.

Johnson, Leon D. Growth of known-age muskellunge in Wisconsin and validation of age and growth determination methods (1971)

From 1955 to 1969, all muskellunge stocked in Bone Lake, Lac Court Oreilles and Big Spider Lake were finclipped. The presence of this large number of known-age fish provided the opportunity to gather empirical growth data and to compare two widely used methods of determining age and growth. From 1956 through 1968, scale samples and fin sections were taken from 1,734 known-age fish and from 1,468 muskellunge considered to be partially known-age fish.

Snow, Howard E. Harvest and feeding habits of largemouth bass in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin (1971)

From 1955 through 1969, the harvest and feeding habits of largemouth bass in Murphy Flowage were studied under liberalized fishing regulations and a compulsory creel census. The annual harvest of bass by anglers averaged 2.7 fish or 2.8 pounds per acre. Bass fishing was most productive during May and June and before 8 a.m. and after 8 p.m., the catch of female bass exceeding the catch of male bass during all months except June.

Novotny, Donald W.; Priegel, Gordon R. A guideline for portable direct current electrofishing systems (1971)

Anode current appears to be a good electrical measure of electrofishing effects with less current required as the water conductivity decreases. A simple guideline table listing minimum required current and suggested anode sizes for various voltages was assembled to effectively fish typical Wisconsin streams with portable direct current systems. Actual stream tests of conductivity (micromhos/cm) and generator voltage must be available in order to select the correct size anodes. The power required for effective electrofishing depends on water conductivity, size and number of anodes, water depth and stream size. A table of suggested power levels is included.

Kleinert, Stanton J.; Degurse, Paul E. Mercury levels in Wisconsin fish and wildlife (1972)

Mercury determinations were made on 1,824 fish fillet samples representing 139 locations covering 52 of Wisconsin's 72 counties and boundary waters of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, Lake Superior, and the Mississippi River. All Wisconsin fish analyzed contained some mercury. Mercury levels in fish from waters removed from any known source of mercury use averaged .19 ppm and ranged between .01 and .60 ppm mercury. The highest mercury levels, averaging about 1 ppm and ranging between .10 and 4.89 ppm, occurred in fish taken from sections of the Chippewa, Flambeau, and Wisconsin Rivers located below paper mills and below a mercury cell chlorine-caustic soda plant. Different species vary in mercury content, and the larger fish often contain higher concentrations of mercury than do smaller fish of the same species taken from the same water.

Baumeister, Robert Chemical analyses of selected public drinking water supplies (including trace metals) (1972)

Drinking water supplies utilizing ground and surface water sources were sampled for trace elements in addition to the standard chemical analysis. None of the raw water samples exceeded the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards for chemical quality, and only one sample from a distribution system exceeded the standards. The one parameter exceeded was lead (.06 mg/l reported, .01 mg/l higher than the standard) which leached from a service line because of corrosive water in the distribution system. Corrosive water in other systems also caused increased concentrations of copper and zinc.

Hilsenhoff, William L.; Longridge, Jerry L.; Narf, Richard P. Aquatic insects of the Pine-Popple River, Wisconsin (1972)

Collections were made from May 1967 through August 1969 on the Pine River, Popple River and Woods Creek in Florence and Forest Counties to document the aquatic insect fauna of these wild rivers.

Cohee, Melville H. Recreation areas and their use: an evaluation of Wisconsin's public and private campgrounds, swimming beaches, picnic areas and boat accesses (1972)

Parts of the findings from two outdoor recreation research projects are used in this report. A study of 65 publicly owned establishments and another study of 135 private outdoor recreation businesses, or a total statewide sample of 200 ownerships in Wisconsin, provide the basic information. The principal recreation areas, facilities, and their use covered in this report are those for camping, picknicking, swimming, and boating (boat accesses); a total of 558 developed site-areas are covered. Also, preferences for campground features were obtained from 1,407 campers. The studied samples included approximately 27 percent of all camping spaces in the state, 20 percent of all picnic tables, 9 percent of the swimming beaches, and 12 percent of the public use boat accesses.

Snow, Howard E.; Beard, Thomas D. A ten-year study of native northern pike in Bucks Lake, Wisconsin (1972)

From 1961 to 1970, a population study of the northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, was conducted on Bucks Lake where northern pike were the only predator species present. Growth of these fish was the slowest reported locally and among the very slowest, regionally. The average standing crop of northern pike 10 inches and larger was 24.4 lbs/acre. The maximum standing crop was 42.5 pounds per acre which is equivalent to the maximum standing crop found for other waters.

Lueschow, Lloyd A. Biology and control of aquatic nuisances in recreational waters (1972)

The control of aquatic nuisances has been in effect in Wisconsin since the early 1900's. Algae populations that have become so expanded that they contribute odors and unsightly conditions are temporarily abated through the use of copper sulphate. This chemical quickly reacts with natural carbonate ions in the water and precipitates into biologically inactive copper carbonate.

Crabtree, Koby T. Nitrate and nitrite variation in ground water (1972)

Studies of the magnitude and variation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in private well water were made in the central Wisconsin farm area of Marathon County, and 55% of the wells contained nitrate concentration of 45 mg/l or more. Among 242 wells investigated, 82 private wells were sampled 2 times/month for a period of 14 months. Nearly 70% of the 82 wells contained nitrate levels of 45 mg/l or greater at one time or another during the sampling period and about 45% of the wells contained nitrate levels of 45 mg/l or more throughout the period. The variations in nitrate concentration were closely related to amount of precipitation and concentration was highest during heavy rainy season and lowest during dry period for the majority of wells examined.

King, Douglas B.; Nichols, David G.; Timm, Richard J. Small area population projections for Wisconsin (1972)

Projections of population and growth rates for Wisconsin communities over the next 20-year period are estimated for use by planners, engineers, public officials and other interested groups.

Klessig, Lowell L.; Hale, James B. A profile of Wisconsin hunters (1972)

To obtain more information about the users of Wisconsin's game resources, a 7-page questionnaire survey was mailed to a sample of 1,500 Wisconsin resident hunters drawn from the stubs of 1968 hunting licenses. Sixty-nine percent of the questionnaires were returned.

Beard, Thomas D. Overwinter drawdown: impact on the aquatic vegetation in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin (1973)

A lowering of the water level on Murphy Flowage during the winters of 1967-68 and 1968-69 resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance and acreage of aquatic vegetation. Before the drawdown approximately 75 acres (42%of the flowage) were covered by plants to the extent that fishing was almost impossible in these areas from June through the summer. After two overwinter drawdowns 60 of the 75 acres was [sic] still open to fishing.

Peterson, James O.; Wall, J. Peter; Wirth, Thomas L. Eutrophication control: nutrient inactivation by chemical precipitation at Horseshoe Lake, Wisconsin (1973)

Numerous methods have been suggested for retarding or reversing lake eutrophication, a process that occurs under natural conditions but is sharply accelerated by activities of man. Nutrient inactivation by chemical means is one method that has been proposed. The method reported here seeks to limit nuisance algal production resulting from lake fertilization by the use of alum (aluminum sulfate) to remove phosphorus, one critical element for plant nutrition. The method represents an extrapolation of advanced waste treatment technology to a natural lake setting where phosphorus is removed by precipitation, sorption, and physical entrapment and sedimentation in a flocculant aluminum hydroxide precipitate. Prior to the effort by the Inland Lake Demonstration Project, this method had never been tried before in the United States on an entire lake.

Ostrander, Ronald O.; Kleinert, Stanton J. Drain oil disposal in Wisconsin (1973)

Service stations handle from 55 to 65 percent of the oil drained from crankcases in Wisconsin. Of this, 97.6 percent is re-used, and 2.4 percent is wasted.

Hamerstrom, Frederick; Hamerstrom, Frances The prairie chicken in Wisconsin: highlights of a 22-year study of counts, behavior, movements, turnover and habitat (1973)

Booming ground surveys are reported for three prairie chicken areas in central Wisconsin for 22, 22, and 10 years respectively. The population trends shown have some bearing on cycle theory but neither strongly support nor deny it. Such surveys are useful indices of population trends and of habitat quality, both of which have strong management implications. For these reasons as well as for their research value, booming ground surveys will have increasing value in future years, and should be continued.

Brynildson, Oscar M.; Kempinger, James J. Production, food and harvest of trout in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin (1973)

In June 1967, stocks of 4,500 age 0 brown trout and 4,500 age 0 rainbow trout were stocked into Nebish Lake, a soft-water lake which had been chemically treated in 1966 to remove all resident fish. Relative production, growth, harvest and food of the two species of trout were compared for 4 1/2 years after their release.

Born, Stephen M.; Wirth, Thomas L.; Peterson, James O. Dilutional pumping at Snake Lake, Wisconsin: a potential renewal technique for small eutrophic lakes (1973)

Snake Lake, a 12.3-acre (5.0 ha), colored, soft-water lake in northern Wisconsin, received the direct discharge of municipal wastes for more than twenty years. Consequent accelerated eutrophication destroyed the recreational and aesthetic values of Snake Lake; annual dissolved oxygen depletion and nuisance aquatic plant growth have converted a community asset to a liability. Rehabilitation of Snake Lake was attempted by employing a lake flushing scheme by means of dilutional pumping. The local geology and hydrology suggested an innovative flushing method in which nutrient-rich lake water was pumped from the lake to a nearby land disposal area, allowing dilution by influent ground waters. Lake water quality parameters were measured for more than three years during the study. Soil, hydrogeologic (particularly lake--ground water relationships), and bottom sediment nutrient transfer studies were also conducted in conjunction with the lake renewal activity.

Priegel, Gordon R. Lake sturgeon management on the Menominee River (1973)

The Menominee River, a border stream between Wisconsin and Michigan, contains one of the last fishable lake sturgeon populations in Wisconsin and Michigan. A section between the White Rapids and Grand Rapids dams, 26 river miles, was intensively studied in 1969 and 1970 to determine the population present and the rate of exploitation. A randomly designed creel census schedule was employed. The population estimate based on the mark and recapture method employing four A.C. boom shockers as a means of capture was 234 and 185 legal-sized fish (42 inches and larger) in 1969 and 1970, respectively. The calculated fishing pressure was 14,300 hours in 1969 and 11,400 hours in 1970. Weekend angler counts were significantly larger than weekday counts and September counts were larger than October counts in 1969 and 1970. The estimated exploitation rate based on the anglers' harvest data was 13 percent in 1969 and 17 percent in 1970, which is considered too high. To maintain a harvestable population, an exploitation rate of 5 percent would be desirable. Wisconsin residents accounted for 78 percent of the fishing effort in both years.

March, James R.; Martz, Gerald F.; Hunt, Richard A. Breeding duck populations and habitat in Wisconsin (1973)

This report summarizes information on the size, distribution and species composition of breeding duck populations in Wisconsin during 1965-66 and 1968-70. Annual habitat inventories and occupancy of wetlands by breeding ducks are included. Current breeding populations and wetland densities are compared with those in 1948-1956, the period covering the last statewide surveys of this type. Sampling procedures are presented in detail, with major emphasis given to improving future population and habitat surveys.

Avery, Eddie L. An experimental introduction of coho salmon into a landlocked lake in northern Wisconsin (1973)

An attempt was made to establish a coho salmon (Onchorhnychus kisutch) fishery in Pallette Lake, a 169-acre, oligotrophic lake in north central Wisconsin. Age 0 coho stocked in October 1968 grew only 5.4 inches in length and 116 grams in weight during three years in the lake. Age 1 coho stocked in April 1969 grew only 4.2 inches and 91 grams in 2 1/2 years. Growth of Age 1 coho stocked in October 1970 could not be determined because none were captured by electrofishing or in fyke nets and because angler harvest was selective for fish over 10.0 inches. Few coho from either the 1968 or 1969 stocks ever attained the minimum legal size of 10.0 inches. Though a few coho lived until their fourth fall in Pallette Lake, survival during the first two years was poor.

Gates, John M. Gray partridge ecology in southeast-central Wisconsin (1973)

Observations on the ecology of the gray partridge (Perdix perdix) recorded incidential to a study of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in south east-central Wisconsin from 1959 to 1966 revealed that pheasants were most strongly associated with wetland habitat and partridge, with areas largely devoid of such cover. This possibly represented selective use of upland habitat by partridge, or avoidance of areas of higher pheasant density. Egg-laying by partridge began in early May and reached a peak near the middle of the month. Preffered nesting sites consisted of roadsides, hayfields and fencelines, in which nest success averaged 40, 10 and 8 percent, respectively. The overall rate of hatching success was 16 percent. Successful clutches averaged 12.5 chicks per brood. The mean size of all broods consisting of young at least half grown was 8.3 chicks, indicating a minimum juvenile loss of 34 percent.

Born, Stephen M.; Wirth, Thomas L.; Brick, Edmund M.; Peterson, James O. Restoring the recreational potential of small impoundments: the Marion Millpond experience (1973)

There are many small water bodies in the upper midwest that are located in or near municipalities. These waters are, or potentially are, important local recreational resources. Silting, heavy growths of algae and rooted aquatic vegetation and declining fisheries have severly limited the recreational potential of many of these small lakes and flowages. This publication describes some of the methods of rehabilitating and managing these water resources.

Dumke, Robert T.; Pils, Charles M. Mortality of radio-tagged pheasants on the Waterloo Wildlife Area (1973)

The objective of this investigation from 1968-1971 was to identify specific causes of hen pheasant mortality and to assess their relative importance on a seasonal and annual basis. Previous research in Wisconsin has provided a comprehensive evaluation of seasonal and annual mortality rates but only a glimpse of the importance of the individual mortality factors. Radio telemetry allowed the observer to maintain daily contact with individual birds and to get to the scene of death with a minimum of delay.

Novotny, Donald W.; Priegel, Gordon R. Electrofishing boats: improved designs and operational guidelines to increase the effectiveness of boom shockers (1974)

The first segment of this manuscript presents basic concepts and design guidelines for electrofishing boats including a summary of problem areas, descriptions of the basic aspects of electrical, safety, and electrode systems, and general design and operating guidelines.

Konrad, John G.; Kleinert, Stanton J.; Degurse, Paul E. Surveys of toxic metals in Wisconsin: removal of metals from waste waters by municipal sewage treatment plants; concentration of metals in fish (1974)

Removal of metals from waste waters by municipal sewage treatment plants. The Department of Natural Resources conducted a questionnaire survey of Wisconsin industries utilizing and/or consuming metals in 1971 and a field survey of municipal sewage treatment plants for metal content in 1972. Metals included in the survey were arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. The southeastern corner of Wisconsin acounted for more than 65 percent (440,998 pounds) of the total metals use reported for the state. In general, high concentrations of metals in sewage treatment plants were associated with areas of high metal use and the average metal removal efficiency for all plants investigated was approximately 50 percent.; Concentration of metals in fish. Concentrations of metals found in fillets of fish sampled from Wisconsin waters were less than 0.05 ppm for cadmium, 0 to 0.42 ppm for chromium, 2.7 to 18.3 for zinc, 0 to 4.31 for lead and 0 to 0.35 for arsenic. Based upon the fish tested in this survey, we do not believe these metals are present in sufficient amounts to create any hazards to consumers.

Dunst, Russell C.; Born, Stephen M.; Uttormark, Paul D. Survey of lake rehabilitation techniques and experiences (1974)

Excessive eutrophication of lakes is a serious international problem. There has been a great need for a comprehensive information source usable in developing future rehabilitation/protection programs. This state-of-the-art review represents an attempt to delineate the accomplishments of lake restoration-related activities worldwide. Information was acquired through an extensive mail survey (about 8,000 entries), cooperation of several international journals/newsletters, and a systematic literature search including foreign as well as domestic materials. The contents of this report consist of five major divisions: 1) identification, description and present utility of the various techniques, 2) compilation and description of individual past and/or ongoing restoration experiences (almost 600 accounts), 3) project methodology, 4) name and address of people providing pertinent information (over 300 respondents), and 5) literature references (more than 800 documents).

Gates, John M.; Hale, James B. Seasonal movement, winter habitat use, and population distribution of an east central Wisconsin pheasant population (1974)

Year-round patterns of pheasant movement and seasonal habitat requirements were studied from 1958 to 1966 in southwestern Fond du Lac County and adjacent parts of Green Lake and Dodge County, Wisconsin. This area traditionally supported some of Wisconsin's highest pheasant populations. Analysis of pheasant movements was based on 2,323 marked pheasants which provided 7,600 individual movement records following original capture and marking.

Nichols, Stanley A. Mechanical and habitat manipulation for aquatic plant management (1974)

Harvesting and habitat manipulation techniques, along with the requisite biology and planning, are reviewed with regard to managing nuisance aquatic plant growths.

Zaporozec, Alexander Hydrogeologic evaluation of solid waste disposal in south central Wisconsin (1974)

The conditions of 62 solid waste disposal sites in 10 counties of south central Wisconsin have been examined during the study. The evaluation was concentrated on physical environments of the existing land disposal sites and their potential for pollution of water resources. Generally, the physical environment offers good natural protection against undesirable effects of landfilling. Landfills can be constructed in almost any of the hydrogeologic environments in south central Wisconsin, provided that a suitable design is used for each particular environment.

Snow, Howard E. Effects of stocking northern pike in Murphy Flowage (1974)

Monitoring of fish populations in Murphy Flowage, a 180-acre flowage in northwestern Wisconsin, between 1955 and 1960 indicated the development of an overabundant, slow-growing population of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus). In 1960 and 1961, attempts to improve bluegill growth by mechanical thinning failed apparently because only the larger bluegills were removed. Since the flowage already had a good northern pike population (Esox lucius), it was suggested that increasing this predator population might result in controlling of bluegill numbers and hence, improving growth. To test this hypothesis, the flowage was stocked in late December, 1963, with 8,534 northern pike fingerlings ranging in size from 10.4 to 22.8 inches in total length. On an area basis, this stocking was equal to 47 fish/acre or 40.3 lbs/acre which met the intent of approximately doubling the northern pike population in the flowage. Complete angling records were obtained by a compulsory permit system throughout the entire study from 30 April 1955 through 31 May 1970.

Cohee, Melville H. Impact of state land ownership on local economy in Wisconsin (1974)

With increasing allegations that state land ownership causes hardships to individuals and the local economy, the need for a comprehensive investigation of impacts from Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) ownerships became essential. Detailed procedures were developed for evaluating impacts and they are explained in this report.

Brynildson, Oscar M.; Mason, John W. Influence of organic pollution on the density and production of trout in a Wisconsin stream (1975)

It took three years following the construction of new sewage treatment facilities for a wild brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus) population to recover its former numbers after being nearly destroyed by organic pollution. Four years after pollution abatement wild brown trout exceeded their prepollution stock levels, and both production and numerical density of trout continued to rise until the completion of the study in 1973. The highest annual production and highest biomass of wild brown trout in the study area was 39.6 g/m2 and 458 kg/ha (409 lbs/acre), respectively, in a 713-meter section in the center of the former zone of pollution during 1872-73. Before the fish kill in July, 1963, biomass of wild brown trout in April, 1963 was 219 kg/ha (195 lbs/acre) in this section. The highest annual production of wild brown and domesticated brook, brown and rainbow trout combined was 47.2 g/m2 during 1961-62 in a 1,513-meter section of the former zone of pollution.

Hunt, Robert L. Annual production by brook trout in Lawrence Creek during eleven successive years (1974)

Annual production by the wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in Lawrence Creek, Wisconsin was estimated for 11 consecutive years (1960-70). Production annually by all age groups combined varied only 20 percent (436-526 kg) and averaged 478 kg (11.7 g/m2). Much greater annual variations in annual production occurred within each of the age groups (119 percent range for age 0, 97 percent for age I, and 700 percent for age II) and in all four of the study sections (95 percent in Section A, 44 percent in Section B, 69 percent in Section C, and 176 percent in Section D).

Priegel, Gordon R.; Wirth, Thomas L. Lake sturgeon harvest, growth, and recruitment in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin (1975)

The harvest, age structure, and estimated recruitment of the lake sturgeon population in Lake Winnebago was determined through a registration system from 1955 through 1969. The average annual harvest during this period was 599 fish. Extreme fluctuations in the annual harvest are governed by weather conditions and water clarity and not by scarcity of legal-sized fish. Neither a continuous sport fishery in effect since 1932 nor an unknown harvest by illegal methods has resulted in a rapid decline in the fishery as far as can be determined to date.

Kempinger, James J.; Churchill, Warren S.; Priegel, Gordon R. Estimate of abundance, harvest, and exploitation of the fish population of Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1946-69 (1975)

A complete compulsory creel census was conducted on 293-acre Escanaba Lake, northern Wisconsin from 1946 through 1969. On the average each year, anglers fished 65 hours per acre catching 20 lb/ acre at the rate of 0.84 fish per hour. Population estimates of the principal sport species were made from 1956 through 1969. The spring standing crop varied annually from 19 to 117 lb/ acre.

Gates, John M.; Hale, James B. Reproduction of an east central Wisconsin pheasant population (1975)

Pheasant reproduction was studied from 1958 to 1966 in southwestern Fond du Lac County and adjacent parts of Green Lake and Dodge Counties, Wisconsin. This area traditionally supported some of Wisconsin's highest pheasant population.

Priegel, Gordon R.; Krohn, David C. Characteristics of a northern pike spawning population (1975)

The northern pike spawning population in Gilbert Lake was studied in 1968 and 1969 to determine characteristics of northern pike spawning habitat, gain additional knowledge on early life history, describe characteristics of the spawning population, and determine the extent of angler harvest of the spawning population.

Smith, S. A.; Knauer, D. R.; Wirth, Thomas L. Aeration as a lake management technique (1975)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of hypolimnetic aeration as a useful technique for lake restoration. In order to successfully evaluate hypolimnetic aeration, aerators were installed in two eutrophic lakes in central Wisconsin. The major component of the hypolimnetic aerator consisted of a 40-ft long, 18-inch diameter polyethylene tube with an internal longitudinal plate dividing the tube in half and twisted to form a helix. Compressed air or a combination of compressed air and liquid oxygen were supplied to the base of the unit and water was air lifted up the tube to enter a 4-ft by 4-ft by 8-ft bubble separation box at the surface of the lake, where the air bubbles were vented to the atmosphere. The bubble-free oxygenated water was returned to the hypolimnion via two 18-inch diameter flexible return tubes. An evaluation of the unit was completed in a eutrophic, clear, hard water lake (Mirror) in 1972 and 1973 and in a dystrophic soft water lake (Larson) in 1973. The initial studies indicated that all of the oxygen transfer from the compressor occurred in the bottom half of the unit, with further transfer occurring in the surface separation box as the water momentarily came into contact with the atmosphere.

Keeney, Dennis R.; Lee, Kwang W.; Walsh, Leo M. Guidelines for the application of wastewater sludge to agricultural land in Wisconsin (1975)

This publication gives guidelines for applying processed (i.e., not raw) sewage sludge to agricultural and forest lands. It has been prepared to assist Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources personnel in the granting of discharge permits (Chapter 147, 1973 Assembly Bill 128). Section 147.02, Water Pollutant Discharge Elimination; Permits, Terms and Conditions, states that "the disposal of sludge from a treatment work by any person shall be unlawful unless such disposal is done under a permit issued by the department". Section147.26, Design of Publicly Owned Treatment Facilities, states that "the department shall encourage the design of publicly owned treatment works which provide for : (a) The recycling of sewage pollutants by using them in agricultural, silviculture or aquaculture; (b) The ultimate disposal of sludge in a manner not resulting in environmental hazards".

Hilsenhoff, William L. Aquatic insects of Wisconsin: generic keys and notes on biology, ecology and distribution (1975)

The most recent keys to genera of aquatic insects in North America appear in Pennak (1953), Usinger (1956), and Edmudnson (1959), but many taxonomic advances have been made since their publication. Increased interest in the aquatic environment has led to a demand for up-to-date keys to aquatic insects. I have attempted to fill that demand by providing generic keys to aquatic insects that occur in Wisconsin. These keys are restricted to genera that are likely to be found in Wisconsin, and treat only aquatic stages of those genera. The regional scope of the keys eliminates many genera that occur only in distant parts of North America, thus simplifying their use. Although the keys are intended for use in Wisconsin, they should also be applicable for neighboring states.

Tans, William E. The presettlement vegetation of Columbia County, Wisconsin in the 1830's (1976)

In this publication, the presettlement plant community types of Columbia County, Wisconsin, are documented. Their composition, distribution and extent as they existed in the 1830's are described from the data accumulated during the original land survey of the county. Six plant community groups delineated within the county in decreasing order of occurrence are: savanna, prairie, upland oak forest, marsh, floodplain forest, and tamarack swamp. Futher analysis of savanna and upland oak forest groups utilizing soils information for the county resulted in the identification of three additional plant community types which occurred over droughty sands: black oak savanna, black oak forest, and xeric sand prairie. A composite map of the 9 plant community types which characterized the presettlement landscape of Columbia County appears on the centerfold of this publication.

Oghalai, Rahim; Mullen, Mary Wisconsin's participation in the river basin commissions (1975)

The Federal Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 established a Federal Water Resources Council to oversee the national interest in water resources, provided for the formation of regional river basin commissions, and funded the states to develop comprehensive and related land resources plans.

Read, Robert H. Endangered and threatened vascular plants in Wisconsin (1976)

As an effort of the Department of Natural Resources' Endangered Species Program and the Scientific Areas Preservation Council, this publication alphabetically lists -- with annotations, map references, and status designations -- native, vascular plants believed to be endangered, threatened, or extirpated in Wisconsin. The list was drawn up with the help of many botanists in the state, especially those of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, herbarium.

Churchill, Warren S. Population and biomass estimates of fishes in Lake Wingra (1976)

Between spring 1972 and spring 1974, the fish population of Lake Wingra in Dane County was studied as part of an ecosystem analysis of the lake drainage basin being conducted for the International Biological Program. Objectives of the study were to estimate numbers and biomass of the principal fish species in Lake Wingra and to estimate changes in numbers and biomass resulting from death and reproduction.

Linde, Arlyn F.; Janisch, Thomas; Smith, Dale Cattail: the significance of its growth, phenology and carbohydrate storage to its control and management (1976)

A possible phenological and physiological basis for control has been suggested for use in cattail management work in wisconsin. Cattail is a very important and natural part of most wetlands. It can provide desirable cover and nesting sites for waterfowl and other wildlife if it is properly interspersed with other plant species and open water. However, because of its abiltity to spread and dominate other plants, it can under favorable conditions completely close desirable semi-open habitat with solid cover.

Kalnicky, Richard A. Recreational use of small streams in Wisconsin (1976)

A field survey of 80 small streams reaches was conducted during the summer of 1975 to determine the amount of recreational use of small streams in Wisconsin. Data gathered from the survey have been used to assess the significance of small streams as a recreational resource.

Fago, Don Northern pike production in managed spawning and rearing marshes (1977)

From 1969 through 1973, the 3.7-acre (1.5 hectare) Pleasant Lake Marsh was stocked each spring with adult northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus) in an effort to determine the factors that influence the production of fingerlings from managed spawning and rearing marshes. In 1971 and 1972, the 18.5-acre (7.5 hectare) Pabst Marsh was also studied. The annual production from the Pleasant Lake Marsh varied from 324 to 3,243 fingerlings per acre (131 to 1,312 per hectare). The Pabst Marsh produced 681 and 1,052 fish per acre (276 and 426 per hectare) during the two years it was studied. These fingerlings were produced from an average of 12.1 and 11.0 lbs/acre (13.6 and 12.3 kg/ha) of adult females and males, respectively.

Oberts, Gary L. Water quality effects of potential urban best management practices: a literature review (1977)

This paper presents a review of the literature regarding the water quality effects of all the readily available urban management practices commonly used to alleviate or control pollution from such sources as construction, street runoff, litter, combined sewer overflows, and all predominantly urban activities that potentially add pollutants to streams.

Carline, Robert F.; Brynildson, Oscar M. Effects of hydraulic dredging on the ecology of native trout populations in Wisconsin spring ponds (1977)

Since 1967 the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has been dredging spring ponds to increase living space for native trout populations, mostly brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and to restore or enhance sport fisheries. This study, conducted from 1967-75, describes the effects of hydraulic dredging on important physicochemical characteristics of spring ponds, with particular reference to changes in trout populations, fishing pressure, and harvest. Krause and Sunshine Springs were intensively studied for two years before dredging and four to five years afterwards. Trout populations and harvest in several other dredged and undredged ponds were monitored to provide data for additional comparisons.

Brynildson, Oscar M.; Serns, Steven L. Effects of destratification and aeration of a lake on the distribution of planktonic crustacea, yellow perch, and trout (1977)

To improve living conditions and expand the living zone for fish and their prey, dissolved-oxygen-poor Mirror Lake (5.3 ha, maximum depth 13 m) in central Wisconsin was artificially aerated suring 1972-74.

Hilsenhoff, William L. Use of arthropods to evaluate water quality of streams (1977)

Arthropods were used to evaluate the water quality of Wisconsin streams. The biotic index based upon arthropod samples is a sensitive and effective method, for it yields information on present quality and past perturbations. Every species was assigned an index value on the basis of collections made previously and in this study, for the purpose of calculating the biotic index. Water quality determinations were then made for 53 Wisconsin streams based on these values.

Rosner, Monroe H. Impact upon local property taxes of acquisitions within the St. Croix River State Forest in Burnett and Polk counties (1977)

This is a study of how local property taxes are affected by land acquisitions by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) within the boundaries of the St. Croix River State Forest.

Germain, Clifford E.; Tans, William E.; Read, Robert H. Wisconsin scientific areas 1977: preserving native diversity (1977)

Preservation of scientific areas in Wisconsin began in 1951, with legislation establishing the State Board for the Preservation of Scientific Areas. This Board, later renamed the Scientific Areas Preservation Council, is advisory to the Department of Natural Resources. Since 1966 the Department has provided a small budget to employ staff for evaluating, delineating, and maintaining scientific areas and assisting the Council in fulfilling its duties.

Snow, Howard E. A 15-year study of the harvest, exploitation, and mortality of fishes in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin (1978)

Complete angling records were obtained through a compulsory, registration-type creel census conducted on 180-acre Murphy Flowage from 1955 to 1970. On the average each year, anglers fished 73.6 hours per acre and harvested fish at the rate of 1.88 per hour. Annually the harvest of panfish averaged 21.7 lb/acre and of game fish, 8.8 lb/acre. Among panfish, bluegills dominated the harvest at all times. The number of game fish harvested were about equally divided between northern pike and largemouth bass, however, northern pike comprised about 70 percent of the pounds of game fish harvested. A remarkable feature of the yield has been the stability in the proportion of species harvested throughout the 15-year study period.

Kempinger, James J.; Carline, Robert F. Changes in population density, growth, and harvest of northern pike in Escanaba Lake (1978)

The purpose of this study was to document changes in population density, growth, and harvest of northern pike (Esox lucius) in Escanaba Lake after implementation of a 22-inch size limit. The study covered a period of 5 years (1959-63) with no regulations and 9 years (1964-72) with a length limit.

Pils, Charles M.; Martin, Mark A. Population dynamics, predator-prey relationships and management of the red fox in Wisconsin (1978)

Red fox population dynamics and predator-prey relationships were studied in southern Wisconsin from 1971-75. Spring fox populations and harvest levels were lower than those noted on the Waterloo Study Area (WSA) from 1968-71. The average vixen gave birth to 5.6 pups on 8 March at a den located in strip cover. Three radio-tagged vixens had a mean WSA home range of 598 ha. Return data from 73 tagged foxes indicated that (1) most pups dispersed after 1 October, (2) males dispersed almost twice the mean distance of females, (3) trapping and hunting were the most important causes of mortality, and (4) populations declined as pelt prices increased. Cottontails, small mammals and pheasants were the key foods eaten based on analysis of 1020 scat samples, 132 stomach contents, food items from 58 dens, and foods collected from 182 km of snow tracking. Red fox, other mammalian predators, raptors, winter severity and high spring rainfall appeared to limit pheasant and cottontail abundance at Waterloo. Predator control was deleted from this study because of landowner attitudes, rising pelt prices, establishment of a fox season, mobility of foxes, and interference by non-target species. Management possibilities include shorter trapping and hunting seasons, and mandatory registration of pelts.

March, James R.; Hunt, Richard A. Mallard population and harvest dynamics in Wisconsin (1978)

An investigation of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) population and harvest dynamics in Wisconsin during 1967-72 had two principal objectives: (1) to summarize the mallard population and harvest information, particularly band recoveries, available in relation to Wisconsin; and (2) to estimate the contributiion [sic] of locally-reared mallards to the Wisconsin harvest.

Priegel, Gordon R.; Wirth, Thomas L. Lake sturgeon populations, growth, and exploitation in lakes Poygan, Winneconne, and Lake Butte des Morts, Wisconsin (1978)

Studies on Lakes Poygan, Winneconne and Butte des Morts from 1952-76 were designed to determine harvest, growth and population structure of lake sturgeon. The intent was to investigate whether overexploitation, a problem that this long-lived, late-maturing fish cannot survive, had occurred on these lakes and to adjust management if necessary.

Kubisiak, John F. Brood characteristics and summer habitats of ruffed grouse in central Wisconsin (1978)

Brood characteristics and summer habitats of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) were studied on approximately 800 ha encompassing four major cover types (alder-aspen, sapling aspen, pole-sized aspen, and pole-sized oak) on the Sandhill Wildlife Area from 1967-75. Flushing surveys resulted in 134 broods and 187 adults observed. Average brood size was 6.8+/- 0.5 for 134 broods observed on surveys and another 48 broods seen on Sandhill incidental to other field work. Hatching was intitiated during the last week in May and continued until the second week in July, with the peak occurring in the first week of June.

Ball, Joseph R.; Marshall, David W. Seston characterization of major Wisconsin rivers (slime survey) (1978)

This study was conducted to assess the impact of paper mill discharges on the seston and periphyton characteristics of major Wisconsin streams, and to characterize the seston in other major streams. A similar study was conducted in 1963 to 1965 and the data are compared to assess improvements in water quality attributed to improved waste treatment.

Avery, Eddie L. The influence of chemical reclamation on a small brown trout stream in southwestern Wisconsin (1978)

The present study was initiated to more thoroughly quantify effects of chemical treatment and total fish removal on a domesticated brown trout (Salmo trutta) population, the sport fishery, and the aquatic invertebrate community in a small southwestern Wisconsin trout stream. A culvert-type fish barrier was installed in the middle of the study zone prior to chemical treatment to determine its effectiveness in preventing reinvasion of forage fishes and to quantitatively document added benefits this practice might have over and above those derived from chemical treatment alone.

Petersen, LeRoy R. Ecology of great horned owls and red-tailed hawks in southeastern Wisconsin (1979)

During 1971-75, a study of great horned owls and red-tailed hawks was undertaken on a 8373-ha acre in southern Wisconsin (43º 10'N, 88º 50'W). The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine demography (numbers, distribution, and reproduction), food habits, and behavior of great horned owls and red-tailed hawks; (2) to examine the impact of these raptors on pheasants, cottontail rabbits, and small mammals; and (3) to formulate management practices that would possibly reduce predation on pheasants by raptors.

Beule, John D. Control and management of cattails in southeastern Wisconsin wetlands (1979)

The encroachment of cattails on shallow water marshes restricts species diversity and wildlife use. This study presents information on controlling cattails to create openings in large blocks of monotypic cattails, and other data pertinent to marsh management.

Dombeck, Michael P. Movement and behavior of the muskellunge determined by radio-telemetry (1979)

External radio-transmitters were placed on 18 muskellunge in Moose Lake and Black Lake, Sawyer County, Wisconsin. Movements of the transmitter-tagged muskellunge were monitored for 14 months, during both the open water season and through the ice. Black Lake is predominantly a muskellunge, largemouth bass, panfish lake with an area of 52 ha, while Moose Lake is predominantly a muskellunge and walleye lake with an area of 676 ha.

Weber, Susan Evaluating the accuracy of biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids analyses performed by Wisconsin laboratories (1979)

Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (WPDES) permits require that municipal and industrial dischargers in the state self-monitor wastewater flows for certain parameters. However, similar self-monitoring data in many states has often been of questionable accuracy.

Hunt, Robert L. Removal of woody streambank vegetation to improve trout habitat (1979)

Woody vegetation, primarily speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), was removed at ground level from 30-ft strips paralleling both banks of three small trout streams to improve trout habitat, trout populations and fishing.

Wheeler, William E.; March, James R. Characteristics of scattered wetlands in relation to duck production in southeastern Wisconsin (1979)

Breeding waterfowl were studied from 1973 to 1975 in southeastern Wisconsin on the 504 sq mile Scattered Wetlands Study Area (SWSA). This area contains some of the best waterfowl production lands in Wisconsin and encompasses parts of Dodge, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, and Columbia counties. Waterfowl pair densities, production, habitat utilization, and food habits were examined.

Rusch, Alan J.; Thompson, Donald R.; Kabat, Cyril Management of roadside vegetative cover by selective control of undesirable vegetation (1980)

Roadside vegetation management through selective removal of undesirable plants was practiced on 15 miles of south central Wisconsin roadsides during 1960-77. Intensive management and measurement were conducted on 3 of these miles comprising 11 segments. The management objective was to restore and/or enhance the quality of the existing roadside cover at a lower cost than that of conventional maintenance for natural resource conservation purposes, with emphasis on wildlife but also including soils, plant and animal diversity, esthetics, and noxious weed control. Plants found to be objectionable or whose anticipated growth would be objectionable on the roadsides, including most trees, were killed or inhibited by cutting, herbicide application, or both. Herbicide use was discontinued in 1969.

Kubisiak, John F.; Moulton, John C.; McCaffery, Keith R. Ruffed grouse density and habitat relationships in Wisconsin (1980)

Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) populations were studied in central and northern Wisconsin beginning in 1968 to determine drumming grouse densities by forest types and age classes, and to develop guidelines for maintaining or improving habitat quality for grouse. Areas surveyed included 1,700 ha (4,200 acres) on the Stone Lake Experimental Area in Oneida County and 972 ha (2,400 acres) on a portion of the Sandhill Wildlife Area in Wood County. An additional 405 ha (1,000 acres) were surveyed on nearby Wood County Forest lands and combined with Sandhill for purposes of analysis.

Hunt, Robert L. A successful application of catch and release regulations on a Wisconsin trout stream (1981)

This study assessed the impact of restrictive angling regulations that emphasize release of most trout caught on a stocked brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery. It is the first completed evaluation of deliberately imposed catch and release regulations in Wisconsin that provides field data on both the sport fishery and the trout populations. Angling regulations imposed were the use of artificial flies and lures only, a minimum length limit of 13 in., and a daily bag limit of one trout. Assessment procedures involved a partial season-long creel census and spring and fall trout population estimates during a 4-year period, the first year (1976) under normal statewide angling regulations and the following 3 years under the special regulations. Parallel data were also obtained from a reference zone where statewide regulations prevailed throughout the entire 4-year period.

McCaffery, Keith R.; Ashbrenner, James E.; Moulton, John C. Forest opening construction and impacts in northern Wisconsin (1981)

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources began a management program of maintaining relict forest openings in 1968. As this phase of openings management approached completion, plans were formulated to supplement existing relict openings with constructed openings. The latter phase involved higher cost and greater environmental impact. The research covered in this report began concurrent with the beginning of the construction phase in 1974. The research objective was to evaluate costs and impacts and develop guidelines for constructing openings.

Avery, Ed L.; Hunt, Robert L. Population dynamics of wild brown trout and associated sport fisheries in four central Wisconsin streams (1981)

Wild brown trout (salmo trutta) populations in four central Wisconsin streams were studied from fall 1975 through spring 1978. Population inventories were conducted each spring and fall. A partial creel census conducted throughout the 1976 and 1977 fishing seasons provided information on the associated sport fisheries on each stream.

Hine, Ruth L.; Les, Betty L.; Hellmich, Bruce F. Leopard frog populations and mortality in Wisconsin (1981)

In response to reported declines in numbers and physical condition of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in Wisconsin, a study was initiated to acquire basic knowledge of leopard frog ecology through statewide and intrastate regional surveys of breeding populations and mortality from 1974-76. The statewide breeding surveys generally confirmed reports of a severe depression in the populations of leopard frogs. Of 301 sites in Wisconsin that appeared to provide good habitat, only 15 (5%) were occupied by leopard frogs in both 1974 and 1975. In a 7-county study area in East Central Wisconsin, only 30% of 83 ponds with suitable leopard frog habitat showed any leopard frog activity during 1975 and 1976.

Thompson, Donald R.; Moulton, John C. An evaluation of Wisconsin ruffed grouse surveys (1981)

Seven annual surveys have been conducted during varying portions of a 19-year period (1962-80) which permit assessments of them as relative abundance indexes of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in Wisconsin. These surveys included the harvest estimate, roadside drumming count transects, winter roost counts, study area censuses of male grouse on areas in northern and central Wisconsin, a spring and a summer rural resident wildlife inquiry, and a grouse brood tally. These have been extensively applied rather than narrowly used except for the study areas.

Thiel, Pamella A. A survey of unionid mussels in the upper Mississippi River (pools 3-11) (1981)

Unionid mussels were collected during the summers of 1977-79 in the main channel and associated backwater areas of the Upper Mississippi River from Prescott, Wisconsin to Dubuque, Iowa, a total of 229 river miles. Living mussels were collected on 2,663 five-minute tows with a 10-ft dovetail clam bar brail. SCUBA diving was also employed to collect living and dead mussels and to determine the efficiency of the brail. The average efficiency of brail runs was less than 1% when compared with SCUBA diving, which was considered 100% efficient.

Pils, Charles M.; Martin, Mark A.; Lange, Eugene L. Harvest, age structure, survivorship, and productivity of red foxes in Wisconsin, 1975-78 (1981)

Harvest, age structure, survivorship, and productivity of Wisconsin red foxes were examined from 1975 to 78. Two-hundred sixty-three questionnaire responses indicated that trappers drove less distance than hunters, but harvested 3 times the number of foxes during the fox season, partially because they spend more time afield. Fox hunters were most successful during January, while most foxes were trapped during November. Questonnaire data gathered from 363 licensed fur buyers suggested that red fox densities and the incidence of mange had declined during 1975-78.

Meier, Thomas I. Artificial nesting structures for the double-crested cormorant (1981)

Natural nesting habitat for the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), consisting of flooded dead timber, has become limited in the midwest portion of the United States. Population trends have followed this decline in habitat and today the species is classified as endangered in Wisconsin. Artificial nesting structures, consisting of a pole with platforms, proved to be a successful substitute for natural nest sites on the George W. Mead Wildlife Area in central Wisconsin and thus provided an excellent method for rehabilitating deteriorating natural rookeries. Platforms constructed with a lath surface, with additional perching space provided, were the most successful of the four platform designs tested, and received high use by cormorants and great blue herons. Cormorant production on artificial platforms was generally greater than that in natural nest sites.

Beard, Thomas D. Population dynamics of young-of-the-year bluegill (1982)

Factors influencing bluegill year class strength were evaluated in 3 small, winterkill lakes in northern Wisconsin during 1971-76. Only bluegill were present during the 1st 4 years of the study while walleye and other warm water species were added in 2 of the lakes during 1975-76. The density of parent bluegill was doubled in the remaining lake and no other species added during this latter study segment.

Dumke, Robert T. Habitat development for bobwhite quail on private lands in Wisconsin (1982)

The habitat development project for bobwhite quail had two objectives: (1) to double premanagement quail densities and stabilize population fluctuations, and (2) to develop incentive programs for wildlife management on private lands. Two management tools were selected to accomplish these objectives: (1) habitat restoration, and (2) supplemental winter feeding. Habitat restoration and winter feeding were implemented on the 60-mile2 (155-km2) Marshall Area while winter feeding was the only technique tested on the 63-mile2 (163-km2) Buena Vista Area. Trends in wildlife populations were monitored on the management areas and a 49-mile2 (111-km2) control area.

Kohn, Bruce E. Status and management of black bears in Wisconsin (1982)

The status of Wisconsin's black bear population was studied from 1972 through 1980 using hunter questionnaires, harvest rates of marked bears, and analysis of the age structure in the harvest. An economical field index to bear populations was also developed and evaluated.

Weber, John J.; Les, Betty L. Spawning and early life history of yellow perch in the Lake Winnebago system (1982)

The reproduction and early life history of yellow perch in Lake Winnebago and connecting waters was studied between 1971 and 1976. Yellow perch spawning at two locations in the Fox River between its entrance to Lake Winnebago and the Eureka Dam were characterized as to relative abundance, size, age, maturity, fecundity, sex ratio, movement patterns, and angler exploitation. Spawning habitat and environmental conditions affecting migration were determined. Egg development was monitored at the study sites in specially constructed buckets and on artificial substrates. Movement, growth, food habits, relative abundance, and mortality of larvae and fingerlings were studied in Lake Winnebago, where most of the Fox River spawners originate.

Snow, Howard E. Hypothetical effects of fishing regulations in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin (1982)

This paper summarizes the hypothetical effects of bag, season, and size limits on the harvest of panfish, northern pike, and largemouth bass in Murphy Flowage, Wisconsin. Complete angler records were obtained through a compulsory registration-type creel census for 15 years. There were no bag, season, or size limits in effect at any time during the study. The hypothetical reduction in harvest with various regulations was calculated from detailed harvest records.

Hilsenhoff, William L. Using a biotic index to evaluate water quality in streams (1982)

The biotic index I proposed in 1977 has been widely used in Wisconsin and elsewhere to evaluate the water quality of streams. It has proven to be a valuable tool, but it is not yet perfected and results obtained through its use must be evaluated with caution. In the past two years we have used the index to evaluate more than 1,000 streams in Wisconsin and have improved our understanding of its use. We have carried out studies to determine the efficiency and accuracy of the index, have evaluated alternative sampling techniques, and have made substantial changes in many of the tolerance values. In this bulletin I wish to report on recent improvements in the biotic index, point out problems that need to be considered when evaluating results, and provide keys for identification of species in certain important insect genera.

Baun, Ken Alternative methods of estimating pollutant loads in flowing water (1982)

A comparison is provided of three principal methods of estimating pollutant loads in flowing water: integration, composite, and stratified random sampling, enhanced with ratio estimation. Of these three, integration and composite sampling have already received extensive use, and are presented briefly here for descriptive and comparative purposes. Stratified random sampling, however, is a relatively new method of estimating pollutant loads, and is discussed in greater detail. One section of the report is devoted to a description of the method, another to the computations involved in using it, and a third to the reliability of the method under a wide range of sampling conditions. Finally, recommendations for choosing between integration, composite, and stratified random sampling are given, based on the relative attributes of each technique, and on the needs and limitations of the individual investigator.

Otis, Keith J.; Weber, John J. Movement of carp in the Lake Winnebago system determined by radio telemetry (1982)

Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) movement, as determined both by conventional tagging (582 carp) and by radio telemetry (19 carp) with boat, aircraft, and from the ground was found to be influenced primarily by spawning, habitat, and seasonal factors. Carp home ranges during winter months were in the deepest areas of the lakes and were approximately one-third the size of summer home ranges. The least carp movement was noted in January and February. Carp were sensitive to disturbances on the water or ice, and radio-tagged carp appeared to display conditioned behavior to avoid close contacts with the tracking boat, and recapture attempts with an electroshocking boat.

Petersen, LeRoy R.; Martin, Mark A.; Cole, John M. Evaluation of waterfowl production areas in Wisconsin (1982)

The Waterfowl Production Area (WPA) acquisition pilot program, a cooperative effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, resulted in the acquisition of 29 parcels or 1,365 ha (3,372 acres) of waterfowl habitat at a cost of over $1.5 million. The pilot program objective was to identify and acquire WPAs in the Waterfowl Production Unit (WPU) complexes. During 1977-79, a study was undertaken to evaluate WPAs within the WPU complexes at 2 major study areas. The Southern Study Area (SSA) consisted of 11 separate WPUs totalling 142.6 km2 (55 mile2) in Columbia, Dane, Dodge, and Jefferson counties, and the Northwest Study Area (NSA), a 362.6 km2 (140 mile2) block in St. Croix and Polk counties. This study was designed to provide the base data necessary for an evaluation of the WPA acquisition program under Wisconsin conditions, and to provide guidelines for waterfowl management schemes under the WPA concept.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: I. Greater Rock River basin (1982)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The St. Croix River basin was sampled from 1975 through 1983 at 920 stations by research personnel, at 10 stations by Dr. James Underhill and his students from the University of Mennesota, at 10 stations by fish management personnel, and at 1 station by students of Dr. George Becker from UW-Stevens Point. An additional 257 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel and other collectors.

Avery, Ed L. A bibliography of beaver, trout, wildlife, and forest relationships with special references to beaver and trout (1983)

A total of 446 references to beaver (Castor canadensis) ecology and the relationships of beaver to trout, waterfowl and other wildlife, and forests are presented. Annotations of 36 papers selected from the general references deal specifically with the relationship of beaver and their activities to wild trout in low to moderately high gradient streams in Wisconsin (10), Michigan (9), Minnesota (10), New York (5), Maine (2), Massachusetts (1), and Ontario (1).

Lillie, Richard A.; Mason, John W. Limnological characteristics of Wisconsin lakes (1983)

This report is the culmination of 14 years of extensive lake data collection conducted primarily by many individuals in the Bureau of Research Water Resources Section.

Duncan, Randall E.; Thiel, Pamella A. A survey of the mussel densities in pool 10 of the Upper Mississippi River (1983)

Freshwater mussels were collected by diving during the summer of 1980 from Pool 10 of the Upper Mississippi River. The entire pool was divided into four different regions (upper end, lower end, East Channel, and West Channel) and three habitat types (main channel, main channel border, and backwater) so comparisons of mussel densities (no./ft2) could be made. Of the 309 sites sampled, mussels were found at 224 sites (72%). The East Channel near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin had the richest mussel fauna with an average density of 2.964 mussels/ft2 and only 6% of the sites nonproductive. The lower end of Pool 10 had the lowest mussel density (0.655/ft2) and the highest percentage of nonproductive sites (38%). The mussel density in the main channel border was 2 times greater than in the main channel and backwater.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: II. Black, Trempealeau, and Buffalo River basins (1983)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The St. Croix River basin was sampled from 1975 through 1983 at 920 stations by research personnel, at 10 stations by Dr. James Underhill and his students from the University of Mennesota, at 10 stations by fish management personnel, and at 1 station by students of Dr. George Becker from UW-Stevens Point. An additional 257 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel and other collectors.

Avery, Ed L. Population dynamics of wild trout and associated sport fisheries in two northern Wisconsin streams (1983)

Angler harvest in central Wisconsin trout streams has substantially reduced normal densities of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) greater than 10 inches, especially age III+ fish. Consequently, recruitment is largely dependent upon only one or two of the younger age groups of spawners. The present study, conducted from April 1979 through April 1981, was undertaken to determine what effect angler harvest is having on wild trout populations in northern Wisconsin streams. The study describes the structure and dynamics of wild brown trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in two northern Wisconsin streams, characterizes the associated sport fisheries, and discusses the managerial significance of angler harvest on these populations.

Hunt, Robert L. Assessment of a daily limit of two trout on the sport fishery at McGee Lake, Wisconsin (1984)

Experimental regulations allowing anglers to keep 2 trout/day of any size caught on natural or artificial baits was tested at 23-acre McGee Lake during 1980-82 to determine if these regulations and responses of anglers to them would result in development of a catch and release fishery for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) of larger-than-average size for this region of the state.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: III. Red Cedar River basin (1984)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The St. Croix River basin was sampled from 1975 through 1983 at 920 stations by research personnel, at 10 stations by Dr. James Underhill and his students from the University of Mennesota, at 10 stations by fish management personnel, and at 1 station by students of Dr. George Becker from UW-Stevens Point. An additional 257 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel and other collectors.

Gregg, Larry Population ecology of woodcock in Wisconsin (1984)

Information on woodcock distribution, breeding biology, habitat use, movements, and population dynamics gathered during a 13-year study in Wisconsin is summarized. From 1967 to 1980, censusing, nest searching, trapping and banding, radiotelemetry and observations of captive birds were employed to study various aspects of woodcock behavior and ecology. Field work took place primarily in the north central portion of the state and effort was confined to two large study areas during the final five years.

Wheeler, William E.; Gatti, Ronald C.; Bartelt, Gerald A. Duck breeding ecology and harvest characteristics on Grand River Marsh Wildlife Area (1984)

Breeding ducks were studied from 1977-81 on the Grand River Marsh Wildlife Area (GRM) and the Grand River Extensive Area (GREA), a 50-mile square block of land surrounding the GRM. The 2,500-mile2 study area includes parts of Adams, Columbia, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, Marquette, Sauk, Waushara and Winnebago counties in southeastern Wisconsin.

Brynildson, Oscar M.; Brynildson, Clifford L. Impacts of a floodwater-retarding structure on year class strength and production by wild brown trout in a Wisconsin coulee stream (1984)

To eliminate severe channel erosion caused by flooding, a dry floodwater-retarding structure (FRS) was installed in 1964 on Trout Creek in southwestern Wisconsin. Because this FRS was built at a valley constriction that was also a prime spawning area for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), a study was initiated on the impacts of the FRS on the trout population. These impacts were determined primarily through comparison of trout population response upstream from the FRS with that downstream during 16 years after construction of the FRS (1964-79), but also through comparison of some preconstruction data on trout populations (1960-64) with the postconstruction data.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: IV. Root, Milwaukee, Des Plaines, and Fox River basins (1984)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The St. Croix River basin was sampled from 1975 through 1983 at 920 stations by research personnel, at 10 stations by Dr. James Underhill and his students from the University of Mennesota, at 10 stations by fish management personnel, and at 1 station by students of Dr. George Becker from UW-Stevens Point. An additional 257 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel and other collectors.

Serns, Steven L. An 8-inch length limit on smallmouth bass: effects on the sport fisheries and populations of smallmouth bass and yellow perch in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin (1984)

One of the more effective and most frequently used methods of regulating harvest to improve a fishery is the use of a minimum length limit. To determine the effects of an 8-inch minimum length limit on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin, the sport fishery was studied for 5 years (1977-81) and contrasted to the previous 5-year period (1972-76) when there was no minimum length limit. The sport fishery included smallmouth bass and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Population characteristics of smallmouth bass and yellow perch were compared for the 4-year periods of 1974-77 (pre-length limit) vs. 1978-81 (post-length limit), because the length limit imposed on 1 January 1977 would not have affected these parameters when measured in spring 1977.

Serns, Steven L.; Hoff, Michael H. Food habits of adult yellow perch and smallmouth bass in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin--with special reference to zooplankton density and composition (1984)

This 5-year study was done to determine the ecological relationships and compatibility of yellow perch and smallmouth bass sharing a water body. The research objectives were: 1) to measure zooplankton density and composition and relate that to food habits of adult yellow perch; and 2) to examine the dietary overlap between adult yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Zooplankton was sampled from May-September throughout 1977-81, and stomachs from angler-caught adult yellow perch and smallmouth bass were collected during the same months and years.

Eilers, Joseph M.; Lien, Gregory J.; Berg, Richard G. Aquatic organisms in acidic environments: a literature review (1984)

Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH, in order to define the tolerance limits of various species in acidified waters and predict how acidification would alter distributions.

Kubisiak, John F. Ruffed grouse habitat relationships in aspen and oak forests of central Wisconsin (1985)

Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) populations were studied in central Wisconsin from 1968-82 to determine grouse response to habitat management, densities by forest types and age classes, and to refine guidelines for maintaining or improving habitat quality for grouse. The study area included the Sandhill Wildlife Area and a portion of the nearby Wood County Forest.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: V. Grant and Platte, Coon and Bad Axe, and LaCrosse River basins (1985)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The Grant and Platte, and Coon and Bad Axe, and LaCrosse river basins were sampled from 1975 through 1982 by personnel from research at 327 stations, from fish management at 14 stations, and from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 2 stations. An additional 124 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel.

Narf, Richard P. Impact of phosphorus reduction via metalimnetic alum injection in Bullhead Lake, Wisconsin (1985)

Bullhead Lake, a 27 ha (67 acre ) hard water dimictic lake with a maximum depth of 10.5 (35 ft.), was treated with aluminim sulfate (alum) via metalimnetic injection on 23 August 1978. The treatment was designed to evaluate the use of metalmnetic alum injection for phosphorus control and to determine the effect of alum on plankton and benthos. The project began in June 1975 and continued through December 1982. Nutrient content, planktonic biota, and benthic community composition and response were determined.

Avery, Ed L. Sexual maturity and fecundity of brown trout in central and northern Wisconsin streams (1985)

A sample of 161 female brown trout (Salmo trutta) from 8 central and northern Wisconsin streams were collected between 1966 and 1981 to determine age and size at maturity and length-fecundity relationships. The smallest mature female examined was 7.8 inches. Sexually mature females comprised 4% of the 7.0-7.9 inch size group, 27% of the 8.0-8.9 inch size group, 71% of the 9.0-9.9 inch size group, 92% of fish between 10-12.9 inches, and 100% of fish 13.0 inches and larger. No age I, 70% of age II, 95% of age III, and 100% of age IV and older trout were mature. Within a size group, more old females were sexually mature than young females.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: VI. Sheboygan, Manitowoc, and Twin River basins (1985)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The Sheboygan, Manitowoc, and Twin river basins were sampled from 1974 through 1983 at 229 stations by research personnel, at 128 stations by fish management personnel, and at 5 stations by Dr. George Becker. An additional 43 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel

Engel, Sandy Aquatic community interactions of submerged macrophytes (1985)

The community structure and interactions of submerged macrophytes were examined from 1977 through 1983 in Halverson Lake, a shallow 4-ha (10-acre) impoundment in southwestern Wisconsin.

Mason, John W.; Albers, Melvin H.; Brick, Edmund M. An evaluation of beach nourishment on the Lake Superior shore (1985)

In 1983, a demonstration project was initiated at Wisconsin Point on Lake Superior to evaluate the beach nourishment disposal option for "clean" harbor sediments. Previously, the State of Wisconsin prohibited open-water disposal of harbor dredge materials because of concern about possible environmental degradation. This study reports the effectiveness of the project for disposing of dredged materials and reducing shoreline erosion, and the environmental soundness of using Great Lakes harbor sediments to nourish beaches.

Craven, Scott R.; Bartelt, Gerald A.; Rusch, Donald H. Distribution and movement of Canada geese in response to management changes in east central Wisconsin, 1975-81 (1986)

A large segment of the Mississippi Valley Population (MVP) of Canada geese traditionally stops at and around Horicon National Wildlife Refuge (Horicon NWR) between late September and December. As both the MVP and the proportion of the MVP in the Horicon area increased in the 1960s and early 1970s (Craven 1978), problems also increased, including crop depredation, uneven distribution of geese both in Wisconsin and in the flyway, altered hunter behavior, and the potential for waterfowl disease.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: VII. St. Croix River basin (1986)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. The St. Croix River basin was sampled from 1975 through 1983 at 920 stations by research personnel, at 10 stations by Dr. James Underhill and his students from the University of Minnesota, at 10 stations by fish management personnel, and at 1 station by students of Dr. George Becker from UW-Stevens Point. An additional 257 stations were partially sampled by fish management personnel and other collectors.

Lyons, John; Margenau, Terry L. Population dynamics of stocked adult muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Lac Court Oreilles, Wisconsin 1961-1977 (1986)

We examined the long-term population dynamics of adult stocked muskellunge that occurred with an expanding northern pike population in Lac Court Oreilles, Sawyer County, Wisconsin. Using data collected from 1961 to 1977, we estimated population size, mortality, angler exploitation, and recruitment using POPAN-2 (a multiple mark-recapture model). Accurate estimates of these parameters are necessary if current muskellunge populations are to be maintained and managed effectively.

Lyons, John; Forbes, Anne M.; Staggs, Michael D. Fish species assemblages in southwestern Wisconsin streams with implications for smallmouth bass management (1988)

In order to better understand the community ecology of southwestern Wisconsin stream fishes, particularly in relation to the smallmouth bass, we performed a series of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses on data collected in the 1970s by Bureau of Research (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources) personnel during the statewide Fish Distribution Survey. Fish species assemblages in southwestern Wisconsin streams generally overlapped in species composition and habitat use. One group of fishes was primarily restricted to headwater areas and small tributary streams (less than 10 ft maximum width) and another larger assemblage of fishes was usually found only in the largest streams sampled (30-100 ft maximum width). However, most species were encountered over a wide range of stream sizes, several species were found at greater than two-thirds of all stations sampled, and species composition changed gradually rather than abruptly from headwaters to downstream areas. Smallmouth bass were most closely associated with rosyface shiners and stonecats, and to a lesser extent with hornyhead chubs, sand shiners, and golden redhorse. The presence or absence of most of these species at a location appeared to be a good indication of the potential of that location to support smallmouth bass. Stream size (width and depth), amount of rocky substrate, and water temperature were the most important environmental variables associated with the presence/absence of the smallmouth bass and its associates; all 6 species were most frequently found in portions of streams wider than 20 ft that had more than 40% of the bottom as rocky substrate and water temperatures greater than 60 F (in May and June).

Hunt, Robert L. A compendium of 45 trout stream habitat development evaluations in Wisconsin during 1953-1985 (1988)

A standard case history format was devised to summarize 45 trout stream habitat evaluations carried out by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) fishery management and research biologists on 41 streams distributed among 29 counties during 1953-85. Thirty-three of these case histories are based on unpublished documents supplied from files of fish managers. Data were gathered from 55 treatment zones (TZs) averaging 0.84 mile long and 20 reference zones (RZs) averaging 0.74 mile long. Wild trout were dominant or solely present in 49 of the 55 TZs.

Lathrop, Richard C.; Noonan, Katherine C.; Guenther, Paula M. Mercury levels in walleyes from Wisconsin lakes of different water and sediment chemistry characteristics (1989)

Forty-three lakes throughout Wisconsin were sampled in 1985-86 to determine the water and sediment chemistry characteristics that were associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill)). Mean mercury concentrations for each of three different length classes of walleyes increased as the parameters lake pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, or chlorophyll-a decreased. Low values for these parameters characterized most lakes in northern Wisconsin. Mean mercury concentrations exceeded the Wisconsin health standard of 0.5 µg Hg/g wet weight of fish for all walleye length classes in lakes with pH values <6.0, for walleyes >=15.0 inches in lakes with pH 6.0-6.9, and for walleyes >=20.0 inches in all lake pH categories. Apparently the older, larger walleyes in hard-water as well as soft-water lakes can acumulate enough mercury to warrant concern. Sediment mercury concentrations were generally <=0.2 µg/g dry weight for all study lakes, but sediment mercury and organic matter were higher in lakes with pH values <7.0 than in lakes with pH >=7.0. Models were developed and tested to predict mercury concentrations in a 17-inch walleye for each lake. The best model derived from our study and tested on an independent dataset used alkalinity and calcium as independent variables. Clearly, walleyes from soft-water, poorly buffered, low pH lakes have the highest concentrations of mercury, but the reasons for these higher concentrations require further study.

Rost, Richard A. Water quality and restoration of the lower Oconto River, Oconto County, Wisconsin (1989)

The purpose of the Oconto River Restoration Project (1979-83) was to develop and implement a plan to restore the water quality, aquatic environment, and fish habitat of the lower Oconto River in Oconto County, Wisconsin. This river segment had been severely degraded for over 70 years by pulp mill effluent. Because of noncompliance with federal and state water quality standards, the mill was closed in 1978. The owner paid a court-ordered settlement, part of which was allocated to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources for development of a remedial plan.

Forbes, Anne M. Population dynamics of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) in the Galena (fever) River and one of its tributaries (1989)

The smallmouth bass fishery of the Galena (Fever) River in southwestern Wisconsin maintained a favorable reputation among anglers through the 1970s when dramatic population declines were suspected in other streams in the region. However, little was known about this smallmouth bass population, the associated sport fisheries, and the smallmouth bass populations in tributary streams of the Galena River. Consequently, I sampled populations in the Galena River and one of its tributaries, Pats Creek, from 1981-84. Population estimates by age group revealed interesting differences between the river and tributary populations. Although both populations were dominated by the exceptional 1980 year class in 1981 and 1982 samples, many fish from this cohort remained in the river throughout the study period, while the tributary supported few fish after 1982. This observation, coupled with data from other year classes and comparisons of habitat, temperature, and flow characteristics between the river and its tributary, suggested that Pats Creek serves as spawning and nursery habitat and that bass move to more suitable adult habitat after age 2 or 3. However, selective mortality of these older fish cannot be eliminated as a possible factor in determining the age structure of the Pats Creek population. Population density and biomass estimates for Galena River smallmouth bass equaled or exceeded those for other stream populations in Wisconsn and adjacent states. Other population and fishery parameters in the Galena River (growth, mortality, fishing pressure, harvest) were generally intermediate in value compared to data from other popuations. Smallmouth bass growth was excellent in Pats Creek up to age 3, but was low for those few fish that remained as adults. Mortality estimates were more variable in the Pats Creek population, and fishing pressure was negligible or absent. Results of this study enabled managers to partially assess a fish kill that occurred in the Galena River after the study was completed. Population density, but not size structure, appeared to be suppressed one month after the kill. Management recommendations resulting from this strudy included the following: continued, regular population assessments by personnel of the DNR Bureau of Fisheries Management; continued support for fish managers to purchase streamside easements and to facilitate the improvement of bank condition and riparian-zone land management; and continued or increased support for programs to reduce nonpoint source impacts on stream water quality and habitat. The study results did not indicate that additional restrictive fishing regulations are needed to protect total population size.

DuBois, Robert B. Bibliography of fishery investigations on large salmonid river systems, with special emphasis on the Bois Brule River, Douglas County, Wisconsin (1989)

This report porvides 966 literature citations pertinent to management of salmonids in lotic systems. Of these citations, 229 (24%) include brief annotations to highlight their salient aspects to management of the Bois Brule River and other northern Wisconsin trout rivers. The subject index lists citations under 41 topic headings in 5 categories: Biology (10 headings), Ecology (9), Management (13), Sport Fishery Assessment (4), and Physical Environment (5). A salmonid species index is also provided.

Penaloza, Linda J. Wisconsin recreation survey -- 1986 (1989)

The 1986 Wisconsin Recreation Survey was conducted to determine the characteristics, attitudes, and preferences of those Wisconsin residents who used our state parks in 1986 and those who did not. In August 1986 a survey was mailed to 1,373 randomly selected Wisconsin residents between the ages of 16 and 87. The response rate was 76%; 65% of the respondents were nonusers of state parks, while 35% were park users. Nonusers were generally older than users, had less time available for leisure or recreation, and were less interested in most recreational activities. Even so, nonusers shared many outdoor recreational intersts with users, such as fishing, hunting, and camping, yet they were less likely to engage in these activities. Lack of time, lack of interest, and lack of information were the primary barriers to the use of state parks. Childhood experience was also a significant factor in influencing adult recreation choices. This study concludes that information dissemination is the most effecftive method for encouraging nonusers to regularly use state parks and for socializing children toward outdoor recreational experiences.

Lange, Kenneth I. A postglacial vegetational history of Sauk County and Caledonia Township, Columbia County, south central Wisconsin (1990)

The vegetational history of Sauk County and Caledonia Township, Columbia County, is presented for the time span from the melting of the last glacier (the Wisconsin Glacier) approximately 10,500 years ago until the present. This time span is termed the Holocene and is herein separated into 3 periods: postglacial time up to white settlement (1838), early settlement (1840-45), and postsettlement (1846 to the present). The last 150 years of the Holocene, corresponding to the years since white settlement, are covered in the most detail. In addition, the late Pleistocene (12,500-10,500 years ago) is treated briefly.

Lyons, John; Courtney, Cheryl C. A review of fisheries habitat improvement projects in warmwater streams, with recommendations for Wisconsin (1990)

We reviewed over 100 publications and unpublished reports, contacted over 30 fisheries biologists from 20 universities and natural resource management agencies, and made on-site observations of projects in Illinois and Missouri to determine what is currently (early 1989) known about physical habitat improvement for fisheries in warmwater streams. Previous improvement work has focused on 3 main objectives: reducing bank erosion and in-stream sedimentation, modifying channel morphology and alignment, and increasing in-stream cover. A wide variety of techniques appear to be useful in achieving these objectives, although few have been adequately evaluated.

Engel, Sandy Ecosystem responses to growth and control of submerged macrophytes: a literature review (1990)

Submerged macrophytes alter the physical, chemical, and biological makeup of aquatic ecosystems. The plants improve water clarity by preventing shore erosion, stabilizing sediment, and storing nutrients needed by algae. They cast shade and retard water movement, creating vertical temperature gradients. Their photosynthesis and respiration cause daily fluctuations in pH, alkalinity, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. Even the lake bottom is altered from oxidation of organic matter decaying plants. Living foliage provides substrate for invertebrates, shelter for fry, and food for water birds.

Hoff, Michael H.; Serns, Steven L. The sport fishery for, and selected population characteristics of, smallmouth bass in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, 1958-1984 (1990)

A complete record of the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolmieui) sport fishery in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, for the period 1958-84 was available from a compulsory permit-type creel census. Data from additional years were also available for calculating growth. Data analysis showed that annual angling pressure during 1958-84 averaged 870 hours (4.9 hours/acre), and annual angling harvest of smallmouth bass averaged 234 fish (1.3/acre) weighing 82 lb (0.5 lb/acre). The mean length of smallmouth bass harvested from 1952-85 was 9.0 inches. There was a positive and significant (P<0.01) relationship between angling pressure and both the number and weight of smallmouth bass creeled by anglers in this lake, which had no season, bag, or size limit regulations on this species. Smallmouth bass were the primary target of open-water anglers, who accounted for most of the angling pressure.

Kahl, Rich Restoration of canvasback migrational staging habitat in Wisconsin: a research plan with implications for shallow lake management (1991)

Throughout the 1900s degradation of staging habitat in the Upper Midwest, including several sites in the southeastern half of Wisconsin, led to large concentrations of migrating canvasbacks on limited habitat along the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s. This reliance on just a few habitats left a major segment of the North American population of canvasbacks susceptible both to catastrophic events affecting the health of the birds and to the degradation of the last remaining quality habitats. Thus, the development of alternative staging habitats must be addressed if this segment of the North American population is to remain secure.

Hunt, Robert L. Evaluation of a catch and release fishery for brown trout regulated by an unprotected slot length (1991)

Timber Coulee Creek, a fertile (methyl orange alkalinity of 225 ppm) 8-mile-long trout stream in southwest Wisconsin (Vernon Co.), was selected in 1983 for evaluating a special opportunity fishing regulation never tried before in Wisconsin. The regulation, an unprotected slot length (14.0-16.9 inches in this case), has rarely been used anywhere in the nation to manage trout fisheries where catch and release (C/R) angling is emphasized. Anglers were also limited to a daily bag of one trout and use of artificial lures only.

Penaloza, Linda J. Boating pressure on Wisconsin's lakes and rivers: results of the 1989-1990 Wisconsin recreational boating study, phase 1 (1991)

In 1989, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Bureau of Law Enforcement initiated an intensive study of recreational boating in Wisconsin. Objectives were to provide information on boaters' activities and experiences that could be applied to work-load analysis, boater education programs, and recreational planning.

Fago, Don Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin: VIII. summary report (1992)

A statewide survey of the inland waters of Wisconsin was initiated in 1974 by the Bureau of Research, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to establish a comprehensive data base on the distribution and relative abundance of all fish species. Records composing this data base came mainly from a survey between 1974 and 1986 of current statewide fish distribution. Numerous historical records (from 1900-72) were also included in the data base.

Gatti, Ronald C.; Evrard, James O.; Vander Zouwen, William J. Electric fencing for duck and pheasant production in Wisconsin (1992)

Eight electric fences were constructed and evaluated on 6 public properties in Wisconsin during 1983-85 to determine the feasibility of excluding predators from duck and pheasant nest cover. Flexinet and smooth wire fences were tested on plots ranging in size from 6-47 acres. Problems in maintaining high voltages were encountered due to human error, equipment malfunction, and natural factors. Maintenance problems decreased during the study, but the smooth wire design maintained consistently higher voltages than the Flexinet design. Predator penetration of the fences mainly coincided with instances of low voltages, but red foxes were apparently able to jump the Flexinet fences and opossums were able to penetrate fully-powered fences of either design.

Schram, Stephen T.; Margenau, Terry L.; Blust, William H. Population biology and management of the walleye in western Lake Superior (1992)

The walleye stock in western Lake Superior is one of the few Great Lakes walleye stocks to perpetuate itself over the past century. The stock had been lightly exploited because of water quality problems, which affected fish taste, and because there was no commercial fishery. With the opening of a new waste treatment facility in 1978, and improved water quality, walleye in western Lake Superior became more palatable and sport and commercial interests were revived.

Lillie, Richard A.; Hilsenhoff, William L. A survey of the aquatic insects of the lower Wisconsin River, 1985-1986, with notes on distribution and habitat (1992)

A qualitative survey of aquatic insects of the Lower Wisconsin River was conducted at 6 primary and 7 secondary sites in 1985 and 1986. A combination of sampling methods, including hand-picking of natural substrates, was employed. Associated physical and limnological data were also obtained.

Hunt, Robert L. Evaluation of trout habitat improvement structures in three high-gradient streams in Wisconsin (1992)

Eight types of in-channel trout habitat improvement structures were installed in 3 treatment zones (TZs) on portions of 3 Wisconsin trout streams having TZ gradients of approximately 1% (53-72 ft/mile). The 3 streams are at the upper end of the gradient range for Wisconsin trout streams. A reference zone (RZ) was also established adjacent to each TZ to monitor changes in standing stocks of trout throughout the study; the RZs were not modified or changed in any way.

Penaloza, Linda J. Boater attitudes and experiences: results of the 1989-1990 Wisconsin recreational boating study, phase 2 (1992)

In 1989, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Bureau of Law Enforcement initiated an intensive study of recreational boating in Wisconsin. Objectives were to provide information on boaters' activities and experiences that could be applied to work-load analysis, boater education programs, and recreational planning.

Lathrop, Richard C.; Nehls, Susan B.; Brynildson, Clifford L. The fishery of the Yahara lakes (1992)

Part of a larger study on the biology and water quality of the 4 Yahara River lakes--Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, and Kegonsa--this report summarizes fishery data from the extensive amount of published and unpublished surveys and research studies that were conducted from the late 1800s through 1985 on these lakes, which are located in and around Madison, Wisconsin. These surveys and studies were conducted principally by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, its predecessor the Wisconsin Conservation Department, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Major data sources include creel surveys, rough fish removal records, fish population surveys (using boom shockers, fyke nets, shoreline seines, and survey seines), stocking records, fish distribution surveys, and research projects focusing on individual species. To gain insight into the lakes' fishery dynamics, lake environment data were also compiled; topics include morphometric characteristics, water temperature,dissolved oxygen, lake fertility, toxics, macrophytes, invertabrate food organisms (zooplankton and macroinvertebrates), wetlands, and water level changes.

Kahl, Rich Aquatic macrophyte ecology in the upper Winnebago pool lakes, Wisconsin (1993)

Since impoundment in the 1850s, thousands of acres of aquatic and wet meadow vegetation have disappeared from the Upper Winnebago Pool Lakes (UWPL) of Poygan, Winneconne, and Butte des Morts and from adjacent areas. Several periods of rapidly declining macrophytes (the last one occurring in the 1960s) led to a large, turbid, open-water system by the 1970s. In response to this severe habitat degradation and uncertainty about decimating factors, a study was undertaken from 1974-82 to investigate historical changes since impoundment, and general abundance, ecology, and factors limiting macrophytes in the UWPL.

Kohn, Bruce E.; Payne, Neil F.; Ashbrenner, James E. The fisher in Wisconsin (1993)

Fishers (Martes pennanti) were extirpated in Wisconsin during the early 1900's and reintroduced into the state during 1956-67. All dry-land trapping was prohibited near the 2 release sites to protect the fishers from accidental trapping losses. This reintroduced fisher population was studied from 1976-91 to develop appropriate habitat and harvest management strategies. Most of the field activities for this study were conducted in eastern Oneida County at a 70.5 mile² site (Monico Study Area) and a nearby 30.5 mile² site (Enterprise Study Area).

Webster, Katherine E.; Eilers, Joseph M.; Wiener, James G. Chemical and biotic characteristics of two low-alkalinity lakes in northern Wisconsin: relation to atmospheric deposition (1993)

In the late 1970s, concern arose regarding the impact of acid deposition on lakes in Wisconsin. Initial research focused on determining the problem extent and on quantifying the resource at risk. Synoptic surveys of water chemistry in north-central Wisconsin documented the presence of many low alkalinity lakes potentially sensitive to acid deposition (Eilers et al. 1983). Furthermore, lake hydrologic type proved to be a key factor in determining lake sensitivity: the low alkalinity systems were predominately seepage lakes. Eilers et al. (1983) hypothesized that sensitive seepage lakes received a majority of their water from direct precipitation--they were dilute, low in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and anions were dominated by sulfate. To test this hypothesis and identify the controls on the chemistry of these low alkalinity systems, we initiated hydrologic, chemical, biological and limnological studies at Lakes Clara and Vandercook in 1980. Lake Clara is in northern Lincoln County and Vandercook Lake is in central Vilas County in north-central Wisconsin.

DuBois, Robert B. Aquatic insects of the Bois Brule River system, Wisconsin (1993)

Noticeable kills of some species of aquatic insects have accompanied periodic lampricide treatments (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol; TFM) within the Bois Brule River (Brule River) drainage since 1959. These kills prompted concern among trout anglers and Department of Natural Resources fisheries personnel about the long-term effects of TFM on the aquatic insect community. This concern was heightened during the early 1980s by declines in several of the river's trout populations that use aquatic insects as a food resource. Hence, benthos collections throughout the drainage basin, and drift-net samples from 3 tributaries, were made between November 1983 and July 1988 to document and assess the status of the aquatic insect fauna of this relatively undisturbed, predominately spring-fed river system.

Engel, Sandy; Nichols, Stanley A. Restoring Rice Lake at Milltown, Wisconsin (1994)

Wind and high water, after decades of erosion and runoff from farms and a municipal wastewater treatment plant, converted a clear lake bordered by wild rice into a turbid one dominated by phytoplankton. Rice Lake at Milltown, a 52-ha (128-acre) kettle in northwestern Wisconsin, had northern wild rice (Zizania palustris var. palustris), waterfowl, and panfish until the mid-1970s. Then the rice almost disappeared and people gave up fishing and swimming. Now wind, bullheads (Ameiurus spp.), and green algae (Chlorophyceae) keep the water turbid. How these changes occurred in Rice Lake was studied from August 1987 through October 1991.

Henderson, Richard A.; Statz, Sandra H. Bibliography of fire effects and related literature applicable to the ecosystems and species of Wisconsin (1995)

This bibliography provides 841 literature citations pertinent to the effects of fire and its prescribed use on the ecosystems and species of Wisconsin and the upper Midwest. Three separate subject indexes are provided: one for general topics, one for species (165 headings), and one for geographic location by state or province (51 headings). The general index is divided into 8 broad subject categories, under which there are 28 topic and 58 subtopic headings. The largest subject category, and the main focus of this publication, is Effects of Fire (on soil, water, air, biota, etc.) with 11 topic headings, 41 subtopic headings, and 706 citations. The other categories are Behavior of Fire (2 topics, 5 subtopics, 78 total citations), History of Fire (4 topics, 129 total citations), Effects of Fire Regimes (6 topics, 12 subtopics, 87 total citations), Drought and Fire Interactions (5 citations), Fire Policy (12 citations), Conducting Prescribed Burns (2 topics, 11 total citations), and Other fire Related Management (2 topics, 54 total citations). Also included is a brief and very general overview of the role of fire in Wisconsin and its effects on the ecosystems and species of the state.

Henderson, Richard A. Plant species composition of Wisconsin prairies (1995)

This bulletin is a reference document designed to be used as a guide in selecting plant species to use in prairie plantings in Wisconsin. It should be especially useful to those wishing to approximate the species composition and structure of native Wisconsin prairie. This bulletin provides, in various tabular formats, quantitative data on the plant species composition of Wisconsin prairie remnants. It presents information about both the average presence/absence of species in prairie remnants of different types, from wet to dry, and the relative density or abundance of species within these prairie types. The bulletin also provides a narrative that discusses both the limitations and usefulness of the data as well as how the user should interpret the data in selecting species for plantings. The data are from the Plant Ecology Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and were collected in the 1940s and 50s from 247 remnants across the prairie province of the state.

McCaffery, Keith R.; Ashbrenner, James E.; Creed, William A. Integrating forest and ruffed grouse management: a case study at the Stone Lake area (1996)

The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate responses of ruffed grouse populations to habitat management during a coordinated forestry-wildlife habitat management program. Additional data were gathered on some grouse and hunter behaviors. The 4,200-acre Stone Lake Experimental Area was chosen because it was State Forest land, had forest types typical of northern Wisconsin, and had a dead-end road that facilitated hunter checks. The primary land use was pulpwood production . The area was composed of 5 forest compartments, 2 of which were being harvested by large-scale clear-cutting at the inception of the study. Three demonstration compartments were clear-cut in patches averaging 22 acres during 3 cutting periods to improve aspen age-class interspersion. The study began in 1967 with patch cuttings beginning in 1974. Grouse population monitoring continued through 1994. About 14 miles of hunter walking trails were developed as timber sales progressed. Ruffed grouse responses were determined by a near-complete spring drummer census. Highest densities of drumming ruffed grouse were found in 8- to 24-year-old aspen saplings and small poles. Of 11 other forest habitats, drumming ruffed grouse densities were highest in swamp conifers (with white-cedar) and balsam fir. Pine habitats ranked lowest. During the first 20 years following cutting, grouse densities on the large-scale clear-cuts and specially managed demonstration areas (small-scale clear-cuts) were similar. Overall grouse densities will likely be higher in the future on the demonstration compartments as prime-age aspen habitats continue to be available, while maturing aspen will have lost its attractiveness in the traditionally cut compartments. Hunter exploitation of grouse averaged about 28% of the estimated fall population when hunting effort averaged about 215 hours/mile². Exploitation appeared to be disproportionately higher during years when walking trails were seeded with clover and mowed.

Lange, Kenneth I. Flora of Sauk County and Caledonia Township, Columbia County, south central Wisconsin (1998)

This flora of Sauk County and Caledonia Townsip, Columbia County, Wisconsin, includes the native, naturalized, and adventive vascular plants authentically known from the study area. It was derived from a number of sources, including vascular plant lists compiled by the author from 1966 through 1994 for a total of 198 localities; vascular plant lists and species records from other individuals, when verifiable; and herbaria, mainly the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The existing literature, including the original land surveys, local newspapers, and local histories, was also consulted.

Cochrane, Theodore S.; Iltis, Hugh H. Atlas of the Wisconsin prairie and savanna flora (2000)

This Atlas of the Wisconsin prairie and savanna flora treats most of the native vascular plants of Wisconsin grasslands and savannas from the standpoint of floristics and phytogeography. Included are 341 species and 73 additional subspecies, varieties, a

Wetter, Mark Allen; Cochrane, Theodore S.; Black, Merel R. Checklist of the vascular plants of Wisconsin (2001)

This report provides an annotated checklist of the known native and introduced vascular plants of Wisconsin, including synonyms, common names, and excluded taxa. The checklist includes 2640 species (3243 total taxa) in 779 genera and 158 families. Taxa of particular conservation concern are identified with special symbols, and status categories are given to indicate non-native and ecologically invasive taxa.

Gilchrist, Susan Cantrell The effects of Project Wild on fourth grade students in Wisconsin: results of a statewide study, 1989-90 (2002)

Project WILD (Wildlife in Learning Design) is a supplementary and interdisciplinary wildlife education program. To determine this program's effectiveness in Wisconsin, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) conducted a statewide research project during 1989-90 in 24 fourth grade classes. Half of the classes were in rural communities; half in urban communities. Half the participating teachers had attended a Project WILD workshop and used some of the activities. The other half had not been exposed to Project WILD.

Evrard, James O. Duck production and harvest in St. Croix and Polk counties, Wisconsin (2002)

A study, conducted during 1982-91 in northwest Wisconsin, evaluated management techniques designed to increase Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) production and determined the contribution of duck produciton to the local hunting harvest. The 415-mi2 (321,280 acre) study area in St. Croix and southern Polk counties contained around 7,000 acres (2.1%) of state and federal Waterfowl Production areas (WPAs). Each year duck breeding pairs and broods were censused by air and by ground and approximately 1,000 acres of upland nesting cover were searched for nests. I sampled nest predators and alternate prey populations annually and captured, marked, and released over 5,000 immature and adult waterfowl during 1982-90. I interviewed hunters in the field during the first 2 days of the hunting season to determine their success. The major objective of the study (to evaluate habitat management techniques to increase duck production in WPAs) was only partially met, primarily due to inadequate sample sizes. Wetland densities, duck occupancy, and breeding pair densities declined during the 1987-88 drought. Mean 1982-91 duck breeding pair densities for the study area were 7.0 pairs/mi² (1.6 Mallard, 2.6 Blue-winged Teal, 2.8 other species). Mean duck breeding pair densities on the WPAs er 68.4 pairs/mi² (17.9 Mallard, 29.0 Blue-winged Teal, 21.5 other). Mean 1982-90 nest success was 21.3% for 621 WPA duck nests of which 63% were Blue-winged Teal, 36% Mallard, and 1% other species. This rate exceeds the 20% nest success needed for a stable population under Wisconsin conditions. There was no difference betweeen mean Mallard and Blue-winged Teal nest success for the 9-year period (p=0.8). Mean duckling produciton was 3 ducklings/WPA wetland acre based upon mark/resight estimates. Thirteen percent of marked Mallards and 5% of marked Blue-winged Teal were shot within the study area. Mallards and Blue-winged Teal comprised 35% and 12% of the harvest respectively during the first two days of the season. Mean hunter success was 0.8 ducks/hunter trip, with 10 hours being needed to bag one duck during dry years.


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