Cannizzaro, Patrick J. (ed.) / Proceedings of the Twenty Sixth Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation : May 1999
Gaines, F. F., III, et al.
A comparison of bay swamp reclamation techniques in Florida phosphate mines, pp. 119-134 PDF (7.3 MB)
A COMPARISON OF BAY SWAMP RECLAMATION TECHNIQUES IN FLORIDA PHOSPHATE MINES Gaines III, F.F., M.C. Cotter, D.A. Phares, C.J. Frey, and A.M. Reed. IMC-Agrico Company, P.O. Box 2000, Mulberry, Florida 33860-1 100 ABSTRACT Bay swamps are found throughout Florida. However, agencies are reluctant to approve impacts to these wetlands until wetland reclamation and creation techniques have substantiated that these forested wetland systems can be re-created. Agencies concerns seem to be centered around the time lag between impact and successful reclamation of a functioning forested bay swamp system including a mature vegetative structure, adequate hydrology and wildlife habitat. IMC-Agrico has completed construction of several bay swamp reclamation projects on its central Florida reclaimed lands. These projects have utilized a variety of techniques, including the planting of bay trees and other hardwoods in designed wetlands constructed on sand tailings or overburden cap, or planting with a mulched muck layer on sand tailings or overburden cap. A third technique includes bay tree stump and tree transfer with supplemental bay tree plantings in a designed wetland constructed with a mulched muck layer on sand tailings. Site preparation and material utilized in these projects have been observed to be as important as manipulation of hydrology during the establishment phase and proper prediction of the post reclamation hydrology. Preliminary monitoring results suggest that these systems can be reclaimed. Continued research will suggest the efficacy of the techniques utilized, and perhaps suggest additional techniques to be used in the future. INTRODUCTION Bay swamps are found throughout Florida. The acreage tabulation of bay swamps in Florida, however, depends upon the bay swamp definition utilized, and further upon the method utilized to determine aerial extent. Various definitions for bay swamps exist depending on the reasons for defining such a system, (e.g., for regulatory classification or to define mitigation success). One published definition of a bay swamp is: "a hydric community along first order streams where acidic detritus aggrades and is not scoured. A headwater forest characterized by presence of evergreen hardwoods [sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana), swamp bay (Perseapalustri), and loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus)], which grow intermixed with deciduous hardwood taxa" (Clewell 1990). Although the above is generally accepted for areas called bayheads, a more appropriate definition may also include: "forests where evergreen hardwoods predominate and Nyssa biflora (black gum) is the only important deciduous hardwood" (Clewell 1990). A more general definition has been provided by Monk (1965), who defined bayheads as forests that are dominated by broad-leaved evergreen trees growing on soils high in organic matter and 119
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