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Atchley, E.J.; Atchley, Jennie (ed.) / The Southland queen
Vol. VI, No. 4 (August 1900)

[Articles and opinions pertaining to beekeeping],   pp. 99-105 PDF (1.8 MB)

Page 99

1 900.            THE SOU'I'IILANI) QUEEN.                       "9
Swarming Theory.
It is well known that queen-
cells cain be reared in upper sto.
ries over qieen-excluding honey-
boards, if Soie brood is given
in these upper stories. Inl fact at
present the most queen-breeders
use this method.
In the last convention, at Ilntto,
tfle question was raised: "What is
the purpose of setting lbrood on
top of this queen-excluder?" but a
satisfactory answer vas not given.
Somiie other questions, most inter-
esting'   a( to practical bee-keepers are
in close connection with this, for
instance:  "What    causes  the
bees to build quIeen-cells?" "IWiat
ecirimstances cause the swarmiing'
iipuiilse"? etc.
To answer these and similar ques-
tionis, we will have to explain
somnething about the nourislhnent
of bees.  In this respect we find
very little inl our bee-hooks and
bee-journals even by our prominent
bee-keepers.   We   know   that
honey and pollen are the natural
food of the honey-bee. Honey, be-
ing a carbohydrate, produces the
necessary animal heat and power,
pollen the only nitrogenous food is
necessary to form and renew the
tissies of the  lioney-bee and
can partially  take  the  place
of the honey  as a nourishment,
containing albumen, starch and
fat.  It is explained and well
known how the honey is prepared
by the bees, how the pollen is ent-
eln and how both are digested and
elhaniged inl the true stonacl of
the honey-bee to chyle. Here it is
important tliat with bees the as-
sinilation of the chyle is different
from the same act with higher ai-
inals and nmuch simplified.  The
digestion is fully filnished in the
true stoineh and the digested
food goes througlh the wall of the
stoimach directly into the blood of
the bee by diffusion, while with
higlher aniials this process is more
( conslplicted and performed by sep-
arate vessels.
Ju) the hoiney-bee we have to ob-
serve another peculiarity. \ork-
eis, queen and drones are not
only mnehers of a family; they are
much more coniected. While the
queen and drones are exclusively
engaged in   sexual duties, the
workers provide for the nourish-
ment of all, and even digest the
food for the queen, drones aid
young larvae.  This is the reason
we can call a colonv of bees a unit
organism.  The young bees espe-
cially are the preparers of the food
for the whole colony; they not only
digest the nectar to honiey by Inix
inig it with saliva, but they digest
the pollen also to eliyne and finial-
ly to chyle, regrgtitate it and feed
it to the queen, drones and to the
young larye, very pqobably to
ailt bees sometimes also.
Further, w-e know that to the
qiueen-larva this sane rich nour-
ishing chyle is fed until the cell is
ca lnpped.  The wolke-lrvv  re -
ceive the same food during the
first tlee days only.  From the

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