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Gustav Stickley (ed.) / The craftsman
Vol. XIV, Number 4 (July 1908)

Pellew, Charles E.
General description and classification of the artificial dyestuffs: number II,   pp. 447-450 PDF (1.5 MB)

Page 449

  Finally comes the name of the manu-
facturer or agent, which is absolutely
necessary, in very many cases, in order
to distinguish one dye from another of
the same name. The best of the older
dyes, whose patents have expired, are
manufactured, more or less of the same
strength and shade, by all the large
firms, although not always under the
same names. But the later colors are,
of course, the individual property of the
different manufacturers, and the name
alone gives, often, but little clue to the
color, unless the name or initials of the
maker accompany it.
  But with these three essentials cor-
rectly given, name, brand and maker,
a color can be identified and obtained
true in composition and shade, even
after the lapse of many years.
  I. Direct Cotton Colors-
        (salt colors).
 II. Colors Formed by Oxidation.
        (a) Sulphur dyes.
        (b) Vat dyes, Indigo, etc.
III. Basic Dyes.
IV. Acid Dyes.
        (a Without after treatment.
            Developed by metallic salts.
 V. Mordant Dyes.
        (a) Alizarine and its allies.
        (b) Chrome dyes.
VI. Spirit Soluble Colors.
  These dyes, discovered comparatively
recently, have the property of dyeing
cotton, linen, paper, and other vegetable
fabrics directly, that is, without the as-
sistance of any intermediary, such as
tannic acid, alum, or similar chemicals,
known as mordants, and used to make
the dye adhere to the fabric.
  Before these colors were discovered
it was a matter of some difficulty to
fasten the dye to the material. Vege-
table fibers consist almost entirely of
the very   inert substance, cellulose,
which has little or no affinity for the
earlier known dyestuffs, of the basic
and acid classes. These colors will dye
animal fabrics, wool, silk, feathers,
leather, etc., with great ease, and ad-
here firmly to them, but when they are
boiled up with cotton or linen, under
the same conditions, the dye will wash
right out, unless the fibers have pre-
viously been impregnated with some
mordant or fixing agent.
  Since the accidental discovery, in
1885, of the peculiar affinity for cotton
and other vegetable fibers of the bril-
liant but fugitive dyestuff, Congo Red,
a vast number of colors have been intro-
duced and have entirely revolutionized
the dyeing of cotton.
  Class names-The principal groups
of dyestuffs belonging to this class are
named as follows: Benzidine, Benzo,
Chicago, Congo, Diamine, Dianil, Naph-
thamine, Oxamine, and Mikado.
   General Applications. These colors
are principally used for dyeing cotton,
linen, and paper. They take particu-
larly well on mercerized cotton, and also
on artificial silk, care being taken, with
the last-named material, not to heat the
bath more than lukewarm. As is the
case with practically every dye, they
will take very readily in both wool and
silk, and, indeed, often give faster and
better colors on those than on cotton.
  An interesting use of these dyes is
the dyeing of mixed goods, i. e., cotton
and wool, or cotton and silk. These can
be dyed evenly by these direct dyes, by
dyeing in a cold or lukewarm bath, first,
when the cotton will take, and then, on
warming the bath, the wool or silk will
take the color and come up to shade.
  For Cotton.-The color is dissolved
in warm water and added to the dye-
bath, which should have a moderate
amount, four or five per cent. (of the
weight of the goods), of soap dissolved

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