The Art journal illustrated catalogue: the industry of all nations, 1851
Gordon, Lewis D. B.
The machinery of the exhibition: as applied to textile manufactures, pp. I##-VIII##
AS APPLIED TO TEXTILE MANUFACTURES. the fault is easily detected by the ridge which will appear on fine warp silk, for instance, runs about eight score threads the bobbin. The cleaner knife rail is fitted up so as to move That is to say, there are upwards of six miles of thread nearly in a slot, and thus the in an ounce, or one hundred miles in a pound weight.: degree of separation of ad- " The mechanical processes of preparing and spinning silk the knife edges is ad- are of a very simple character, and form a striking contrast to justable to the quality of the processes to which cotton, flax, and wool have to be sub- the thread or silk to be mitted ere they are fit for the loom. Silk-weaving is, on the Cleaned. This operation other hand, attended with difficulties which are not met with was formerly combined in weaving the yarns spun from the other textile fibres of with a doubling of the which we are to treat. threads, and a system of drop wires was intro- The machinery of cotton-manufacture has its application duced for stopping the even before the " raw material " is brought to the factory. bobbins when threads The "cotton-wool " has to be separated from the seed. broke. This is now dis- The machine now almost universally used for this purpose is pensed with, and the the saw-gin, the roller-gin having been supplanted even in spinning and doublin d. The best example of this machine is exhibited in the frame in the annexed United States department. Till 1793, when Eli Whitney drawing performs the --- invented the saw-gin, the wool of the green-seeded cotton operation by one process and dispenses with the stoving of could only be separated from the seed by an amount of the silk, which was formerly necessary. labour very discouraging to the growth of that hardy and The silkworm-threads, perfectly cleaned, and become of a productive article. By this invention, one man was enabled brilliant glossy appearance, are transferred to the spinning to do the work of a thousand, and there was no limit to the and doubling frame. In this machine, the threads from two cultivation of the cotton save the limits to the acreage of or three of the bobbins from the cleaner are not now only suitable soil. wound together in contact upon another set of bobbins, but The quantity of raw cotton consumed in the cotton manu- they are at once spun together. The lower set of bobbins are facture of Great Britain, in the year 1850, was 584,200,000 lbs., or nearly 835 tons per diem. IL i The machinery for manufacture of cotton-for performing the various operations that prepare the cotton wool, as imported from the countries where it is grown,, for being spun and woven-are liberally displayed in the Exhibition by leading British manufacturers and by the French. There are few things more interesting in manufacturing processes than the progress of the soft downy substance of the interior of the cotton-pod, with all its fine filaments and delicate colour, through its various stages, until it becomes a useful fabric for the daily wear of the industrious classes, or assumes those beautiful forms in which Art has added grace to mechanical skill and ingenuity. These gradations are at once so perfect and complete, while they are based upon the most admirable system of orderly progress, that cotton-spinning becomes a science of no ordinary character when it is carried to the perfection to which we see it here displayed. The examples exhibited illustrate the various gradations of the placed vertically on spindles driven by bands from a large coarse and fine manufacture-there are cases commencing drum, and then, in being transferred from one set of bobbins with a specimen of Sea-Island cotton, and having every stage to the other, two or more threads are laid together. The of progress up to nine-cord sewing thread, and muslin and twist, or, more correctly speaking, the angle of lay, is kept figured lace. The only drawback to their great interest is the exceedingly uniform, the bobbin going slower as it fills, by crowding together of so many specimens in so small cases, working an intermediate friction roller (not seen in drawing). since there is some difficulty in distinctly separating them. The guider is, of course, attached to this machine again with This is the more to be regretted, as the connection of the a very slow motion, so that the doubled and spun thread is raw material with the examples around is so admirably illus- laid very uniformly and closely on the bobbins, which are now trated, and, if studied in connection with the machinery, is transferred to the throwing mill or machine. On this machine capable of affording valuable lessons. the doubled and spun The yarns, exhibited as the basis of other products, show threads are transferred to what an extent the ingenuity of man can be carried, when from bobbins on to employed in a given direction. There we have specimens of swifts or reels, and yarn spun by machinery, which is of so delicate a character, thus become hanks of 111 that the fibres of cotton can only be discovered in the fabric silk in the state in by the aid of the microscope; and so delicate is it that it falls which they are sent to to pieces by handling. This curiosity of manufacture is the weaver. In this exhibited by Messrs. Thomas Houldsworth & Co., of state, it is called sin- Manchester, and is the result of the energy and enterprise gles, tram, or organ- of Henry Houldsworth, Esq., of that firm. In the contribu- zine, according as it tions of this establishment we find specimens of cotton yarn has been made into ranging from No. 100 to No. 700, in single yarn; and No. hanks after being - - 100 to No. 670, in double yarn, or lace thread. These figures simply cleaned and - express the number of hanks to a pound weight, each twisted, after being - hank being 840 yards; and the last named number of 700 doubled and twisted, E in single, and 670 in double yarn, is the triumph of cotton- or after being spun A spinning for all practical purposes, since we find that a pound into thread by a second , weight of cotton is elongated, in the first instance, to a length spinning operation. of 338 miles; and, in the other, to a double thread 324 miles, The fineness of the silk is determined by the number of at a cost of 281., as the price of a single pound weight. The warp lengths, measuring seventy-two yards, in the ounce; most remarkable example, however, is the specimen shown as I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~I*
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