The Art journal illustrated catalogue: the industry of all nations, 1851
Gordon, Lewis D. B.
The machinery of the exhibition: as applied to textile manufactures, pp. I##-VIII##
THE MACHINERY OF THE EXHIBITION, are so connected with the frame of the machine, that any or coarse, according to the number of fibres of which the fixed point is compelled, when in motion, to describe a circle thread is composed. round the axis; sliding pieces are compelled by fixed guides The factories in which raw silk is spun into silk-thread for to describe straight lines, and so on. These pieces are con- weaving are called throwing mills, ihe term throwing being nected either by contact or by intermediate pieces, so that formed from the word " throw," in the obsolete sense of " to when'the first piece in the. series is moved-from any external twist," " to twine." cause, it compels the second to move, which again gives motion In 1719 a silk-throwing mill was erected at Derby. This to the third, and so on. was the first in England, and it still exists. The act of giving motion to a piece is termed driving it, Winding is the first process which the raw silk undergoes. and that of receiving motion from a piece is termed following Winding-that is, transferring the silk skeins on to bobbins, it. The follower receives motion from the driver. was formerly done by hand, on machines carrying four or six In the view we are about to take of the Manufacturing reals and as many bobbins. The winding machines now are Machines of the Exhibition, we exclude any reference to driven by power of steam or water, and are arranged in frames the receivers of power, important as is the part they play carrying' as many as one hundred swifts or reels. The in the history and economy of manufactures. Our object is winding requires the unwearied attention of children to mend specially to record mechanical processes, and to give some idea the threads that break as well in this process as in the next. of the mechanism'of the machines applied to textile manufac- There are about eight thousand children under thirteen years tures exhibited. We have chosen an order for treating of the of age employed in British silk factories. mechanical processes by which textile fabrics are produced, which leads from the simple to the complex, and which shows the origin of the improvements that led to the wonderfully perfect machinery exhibited as applied to each and all textile fabrics. These processes depend primarily on the nature of the materials-the raw materials to be worked up. Silk, Cotton, Flax, and Wool, require different methods of preparation for being spun and woven, the ultimate processes in the union of f_ all textile fibres. Silk Mlfanufactures.-It would be out of place to enter into E any details in regard to the little worm which produces the millions of pounds of raw silk annually produced and worked up on the continent of Europe, in India and China, and imported into Great Britain to supply this branch of industry. In the French, the Milanese, the Piedmontese, the Tuscan, the Roman, Neapolitan, Algerian, Chinese, and Indian depart- ments of the Exhibition, samples of the cocoons, and of the Our drawing represents the winding machine as made by reeled or raw silk of these countries may be seen and exa- Mr. Frost of Macclesfield, the skeins of raw silk are put on to mined. the swifts which are six-armed reels, with string cross bars The weight of cocoons varies according to the climate to form the fork in which the skein lies. The axles of the and management of the worms. About two hundred and swifts lie loosely in centres, and the framing descends no thirty to a pound may be taken as an average, and twelve lower than this centre, so that there is very little liability to pounds of cocoons make a pound of raw silk. Thus 2760 knocking. The thread is passed through glass guides, worms are required for every pound of raw silk! For every arranged on a traversing guide bar, to the bobbins. million pounds weight of raw silk produced in France, it is The bobbins are turned by double wooden rollers, turned reckoned'that two hundred and fifty million pounds weight of out of one solid piece of wood causing them to run with mulberry leaves are consumed, and that five million of trees, greater truth than ordinary rollers: and by their being of the average age of thirty years, are stripped to furnish covered with leather, the use of chalk or rosen, to get adhesion them! . Upwards of five million pounds of raw silk are now is unnecessary, and thus a source of soiling the silk is avoided. imported into Great Britain annually. In Britain the silk By working with double rollers as is done in the machine, it factories are almost confined to England. is impossible that the cheeks and spindles of the bobbins can The process of Reeling the Silk from the Cocoons is carried wear out. on in Europe in the months of July, August, and September, The motion of the guide bar is produced by oval toothed in establishments called Statures, and in the cottages of the wheels. The object of this motion is to cross the threads peasantry of the countries where the silk is produced. diagonally on the bobbins in order to prevent the threads from The cocoons become an 'article of trade as soon as the sticking together, that is to ensure that the unwinding them insect inside has been killed by exposing them in an oven, shall take the least possible force, and proceed without or' to the steam of boiling water: they are now to be wound entangling. The drawing No. 1 represents only a small part of, or reeled. - In the commencement the he operation, the of the length of a winding machine. cocoons, having been for a short time in a trough of hot water to soften their gum, the loosened ends are then taken (four together generally), twisted with the fingers, then passed through an eye on the end of a wire, and thence to the reel. Two skeins are generally thus formed at the same time, a child turning the reel, and a woman attending to mend the threads or fibres. The reel is so constituted, that while revolving it has communicated to it by wheel-work, a lateral traverse from right to left, and from left to right. The amount of traverse Cleaning.-The silk having been transferred from the-skeins for each revolution being. regulated so that the thread of one to tle bobbins has to undergo a process of cleansing. This revolution does not overlay the other, for if it did, the natural process is performed in transfering the silk from th is -gumminess would cause these threads to adhere. The extent produced on the last machine, to the bobbins or trais in the of traverse is about three inches, and in the time employed in machine represented in the accompanying drawing. reeling this breadth of threads, the gum dries sufficiently to The silk has to be cleaned to rid it of adhesive gummy prevent the threads from sticking to each other at the points matter and dust. For this it is passed though a r of crsinsng. knife or double knife placed on the guide rail, by the motion All kinds of silk which are simply drawn from the cocoons of which the thread is uniformly distributed on the new by the reeling, are called raw silk, but are denominatedfine bobbins. If by any accident a thread be left out of the knife, *II**
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