The Art journal illustrated catalogue: the industry of all nations, 1851
The science of the exhibition, pp. I#-XVI#
THE SCIENCE -OF THE EXHIBITION. PART IV. have great capabilities, but they have made no rogress. INour rapid glances at the developments of science, as they Their vases are of the same kind as adorned .the hagl. of. the are manifested in the efforts of thought and industry now wealthy in the Si-Hang dynasty. ,Their ivory carings are gathered within our "p alatce all of glass," we have confined similar to those of Tai-tsong in 626, and their pitings are our attention principally to the productions of British skill, such as in the very infancy of art are to be dicverdi Much has been done towards the extension of abstract science other lands.- Yet in one little corner of the area, ocpe to the useful purposes of life, but still more remains to be by China, is a little picture ;of a female bather, doubtless a done; and we should learn to look upon the Great Exhibition copy, in which there is a degree of perfection in drawing, in as one of the resting places, from which in our ascent we can knowledge of colour, and in artistic effect, which proves how contemplate the triumphs of the past, and meditate upon the easily they could excel if they'were stimulated to the trial. labours which et remain to try the human mind. The ocean There is much of considerable scientific. interest in the contri- of know-ledge Kati be-en ventured upon in frail, but skilfully butions from China. We learn something 'of the mineral managed barques, and some of the isles of truth, which stud produce of that country in the cleto of thevaiu its surface like stars of light in their beauty, have been dis- materials from the great porcelain works of Kiang-tihit' Chin covered; but "1a wilderness of heaving waters " is beyond the near the Poyang lake, employed in the manufacture of horizon; and from the crest of the wave upon which we rest, porcelain. We have a beautifuil exemplification of their process we see mirages of glorious promise for those who will essay of making pottery. We find that all the 'materials they the untracked space from which yet higher treasures may be employ are such as we possess, and judging from the appear- gathered to improve the condition of toiling humanity. ance they are, most of them, inferior in quality to those which It now becomes an equally pleasing task to contemplate our potters employ. The naturalist might glean much the Eastern side of the industrial palace, within which space information from the study of the series, but "the products of those, whom we, from long habit, call foreigners, have so the vegetable and animal kingdom are beyond ou poice. liberally displayed the evidences of their industry. If no However, in the metal tea-pots, lined with earhnwrwe other good were to result from the Exhibition, than that of see 'that our, process, recently introduced, of enameligro bringing the nations closer together, of making man better utensils is familiar to the 'Chinese.. Their paprhnig acquainted with his fellow man, and thus destroying those should be inspected, and we should remember ta we owe national prejudices which are so many barriers against human this branch of manufacture entirely to the Chinese, and that progress, it would have done much towards the advancement the first attempts made in Europe were with a view merely to of civilisation. imitate those papers which were then imported and sold at In~ passing carefully through the labyrinthine ways, between an enormous price. The Chinese metal castings are most Tunis and Turkey on the one side, and the United States on ingenious ; they make their model of wax, place it in a the other, we have diligently sought to discover some novel box and cover it with sand, tightly packed on eve~ side; application of science-something peculiar in its way-illus- the whole is then exposed to heat sufficient to melt th wax, trative of some branch of study to which England might yet and bronze is runm in. to supply its place. The Chinese be a stranger. But we have found it not ;-we confess to some compasses are curious, seeing that with this nation the use disappointment, and we acknowledge some amount of plea- of the magnet as a guide over the ocean or the 'desert., had sure. It proves, that notwithstanding the barriers of language probably its origin; and the models of pumps shown are -that in spite of still existing prejudices-the truth diffuses interesting as illustrating the knowledge of- hydrostatics itself like an atmosphere over the old and the new continents, possessed by the inhabitants of the flowery land. Whether any law regulates the progress of human know- Tunis has many remarkable features; rough manufacture ledge is a question of interest, which, however, we are not in united with beautiful form and an harmonious arrangement a position to answer. There are nevertheless many curious phe- of colours, being curiously displayed. The Tunisian dyes have nomena connected with the advance of truth which appear to long been celebrated, particularly their red dye,- as shown in indicate psychological effects to be determinable in obedience the celebrated caps called Beretti. The mordant they employ to some general cause. When we -find the electrotype is alum: much merit is attributed to the waters of a river, developed at the same time by Jacobi in St. Petersburgh and but it appears that the whole secret of their process consists by Spencer in Liverpool; the mystery of sun-drawing being in fixing their vegetable dyes by means of the, sulphate of discovered by Daguerre in Paris and by Talbot in this country; alumina, exposing the, dyed gooda, to the -chemical agency of and any the exaple of he pbliatio ofnew trutsa their southern sun, and then streaming out, by immersion in nearly the same time in countries widely separated from each the river, everything which is not chemically combined with other, and where previous concert was impossible, we are the wool,' cotton, or silk. It is interesting to examine the compelled to admit, at least, the general operation of almost earth, rich in iron, and the lead ore from the mountains of occut pwer, iducing to the development of facts new to Slata, and the copper ore from the mountain of Gerisa; we human knowledge. Be this as it may, it is certain that no gain thus knowledge of the distribution of minerals, which one country amongst those exhibiting their works, canl claim cnrrl eotie;adi nta fbigdsesdi priority on account of any new application of science. For areas, representing kingdoms, the articles exhibited had been varitiesof ndusryand for perfection in those varieties, the gathered into natural groups, the kingdomsbeg subdvso, interatioal jrieswereappointed ; they have completed the educational charatrothgetExitonwudav thei laburstheir reporters are now at work on their been increased a hundred fold. wniently whuld'efe t d aln respective reports, and it will not be long before the world with the minerl f saan ficw sol Orf cper t 'wdl know how they have performed their responsible duties. recent addition in Class I., on the Englishsieofcpr Commencing our review of the continental section of the ores, and iron, ofrmakbe hratr fAromi soeta barren Exhibition, we are met first by the productions of the most mountains in the depths of the deserts of rbaPtia hc singIular people on the face of the earth-the Chinese. The have only onebepasdyanEgihtvlerTe in~habitants of the celestial empire had a science-probably an gypsmthlmeonsadtesltfTuiaraldsrvg empiicalsciece-i a hgh dgreeof prfection, while yet thle attention of those who would really profit by this great Europe was enveloped in the night. of. ignorance. Theimainu-regathering.ce factur of pocelain whichis onl now i its perfection Persia contributes little of scienii neet u ree familir tof pourselves, waihsaongst thew eries othiinadintoa -valuable collection 'of vegetable' products, aindstial Ats. Mealurgeve, y, particularly mixed metal casting, including a jar of honey from Mount Hymettus, sends a series hads been pratis. ed ytheawtlgetlucesomn of lithological specimens, which. have much importance and thousands of years. Ihey have taxed and tortured nature to classic associatin Tepiro f the moatriles fofHmettuse miniter o thir ants andyiel frsh food for their luxuries and Pentelicon contribute specimens oftemrlsfo hs for ages, and yet now they figure amidst the gatherng ofth uarison whichth groesatsupos oAtheneP is exertedad their earth, the exemplars of a people who have stood still while all genius. Upnsc tn s as thesePhdaswrkhedon, anderomi the wrld as ben mving In anufcture and in art they these quarries came the wonderso h ateo.Teei XIII'.
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