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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution ; and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Manchester, N.H.,   pp. 449-450

Page 450

accumulated on a cloth-beam would be an encumbrance to the machine.
As the bags are cut out, the weaver folds and piles them by the side of
the loom, and these are removed, and an account taken every half-day.
The bags are hemmed round the top, or mouth, by sewing-machines, each
machine being attended by one female operative; and the average work of
each is 650 bags for a machine per day. There are 126 of these seamless
bag-looms at work in the Stark Mills. The average make is 47 bags for a
loom per day, and the speed about 130 picks per minute.
The " Manchester Print Works," incorporated in 1839, has a capital of
$1,800,000, employs 1500 operatives, and produces about 15,000,000 yards
of delaines, bareges, and calicoes, annually. The Printery is a fire-proof
structure, built of brick, in the form of a hollow square, 165 by 200 feet.
This Company has been among the foremost in adopting devices calculated
to save labor. A cotton piece in this establishment is scarcely touched by
hand, from the time it enters the machine until it is dyed, and has to be
untwisted from the wringing, after dyeing. The engraving of the rollers,
instead of being performed by the old, tedious hand-process, is executed by
the ingenious Pentograph machine, invented by John Hope, of Providence,
and which has been previously described. The singeing of the cloth,
instead of being accomplished as formerly, by being drawn over red-hot
cylinders, is now effected by an ingenious machine, which supplies gas for
the burning material. The fabric is passed rapidly over a horizontal pipe,
along which numerous little apertures extend in a straight line, so that
the gas, ignited, gives a long line of flame, equal to the width of the cloth.
The movement is at the rate of about three feet in a second, and the loose
fibres are burned off without igniting the fabric. The stopping of the
motion cuts off the gas beneath the cloth, and of course extinguishes the
flame, which is immediately relighted as soon as the movement again com-
mences, by means of side lights-the extinguishing and relighting being
effected by the action of the machinery itself, without any additional mani-
pulations of the workmen. Any sparks that may remain are extinguished,
as the cloth immediately passes between two rubbers placed in front of the
line of flame.
The other important corporations in Manchester, are the Amoskeag
Duck and Bag Company, which has a capital of $300,000, and manufac-
tures 600,000 bags per annum; the Amoskeag Paper-mill, which produces
about one and a quarter tons of book and news paper per day; the Amos-
keag Axe Company, which employs 50 hands, and makes about 800 tools
per day; the Langdon Manufacturing Company, capital $225,000; the
Manchester Iron Works, and the Manchester Locomotive Works, which
were incorporated in 1854, with a capital of $100,000, and have been
very successful.

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