Jones, Owen, 1809-1874. / The grammar of ornament
Celtic ornament, pp. 89-97 ff.
CELTIC ORNAMENT. PLATE LXV. SPIRAL, DIAGONAL, ZOOMORPHIC, AND LATER ANGLO-SAXON ORNAMENTS. 1. Initial Letter, from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. End of 7th century. British Museum. (Magnified.) 2. Ornament of angulated Lines, from the Gregorian Gospels. British Museum. (Magnified.) 3. Interlaced Animals, from the Book of Kells, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. (Magnified.) 4. Diagonal Pattern. Gospels of Mac Durnan, in the Library of Lambeth Palace. 9th century. (Magnified.) 5 and 12. Spiral Patterns, from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. (Magnified.) 6. Diagonal Patterns, from Irish MSS. at St. Gall. 9th cen- tury. (Magnified.) 7. Interlaced Ornament, from ditto. 8. Interlaced Animals. Gospels of Mac Durnan. (Magni- fied.) 9, 10, 13. Diagonal Patterns. Gospels of Mac Durnan. (Magnified.) 11. Diagonal Patterns, from Gospels of Lindisfarne. (Magni- fied.) 14. Terminal Border of Interlaced Animals, from Gospels of Lindisfarne. (Magnified.) 15 and 17. Panels of Interlaced Beasts and Birds, from Irish Gospels at St. Gall. 8th or 9th century. 16. Initial Q, formed of an elongated Angulated Animal, from Psalter of Ricemarchus, Trinity College, Dublin. End of 11th century. 18. One Quarter of Frame, or Border, of an Illuminated Page of the Benedictional of z~thelgar at Rouen. 10th century.-SILVESTRE. 19. Ditto, from the Arundel Psalter, No. 156, British Museum. -HuMPHBrIEs. 20. Ditto, from the Gospels of Canute, in British Museum. End of 10th century. 21. Ditto, from the Benedictional of iEthelgar. 22. Terminal Ornament of Spiral Pattern, with Birds. Part of large Initial Letter in the Gospels of Lindisfarne. (Real size.)-HumPnuxs. CELTIC ORNAMENT. THE genius of the inhabitants of the British Islands has, in all ages, been indicated by productions of a class or style singularly at variance with those of the rest of the world. Peculiar as are our characteristics at the present time, those of our forefathers, from the remotest ages, have been equally so. In the Fine Arts, our immense Druidical temples are still the wonder of the beholder; and in succeeding ages gigantic stone crosses, sometimes thirty feet high, most elaborately carved and ornamented with devices of a style unlike those of other nations, exhibited the old genius for lapidary erections under a modified form inspired by a new faith. The earliest monuments and relics of ornamental art which we possess (and they are far more numerous than the generality of persons would conceive) are so intimately connected with the early introduction of Christianity into these islands,* that we are compelled to refer to the latter in our endeavours to unravel the history and peculiarities of Celtic Art; a task which has hitherto been scarcely attempted to be performed, although possessing, from its extreme nationality, a degree of interest equal, one would have thought, to that connected with the history of ornamental art in other countries. 1. HISTORICAL EVIDENcE.-Without attempting to reconcile the various statements which have been made by historians as to the precise manner of the introduction of religion into Britain, we have the most ample evidence, not only that it had been long established previous to the arrival of * The Pagan Celtic remains at Gavr' Innis, in Brittany, New Grange, in Ireland, and, I believe, one Druidical monument near Harlech, in Wales, exhibit a very rude attempt at ornamentation, chiefly consisting of incised spiral or circular and angulated lines. 90
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