Donaldson, Thomas Leverton, 1795-1885 / A collection of the most approved examples of doorways : from ancient buildings in Greece and Italy, expressly measured and delineated for this work, preceded by an essay on the usages of the ancients respecting doorways; a new translation of the chapter of Vitruvius on the subject, with the original text taken from an ancient and valuable m.s. in the British museum; and copious descriptions of the plates
Chapter II. The original text of that part of the fourth book of Vitruvius on architecture, relating to doorways, pp. -
ORIGINAL TEXT. *DE OSTIORUM ET ANTEPAGMENTORUM ADIUM RATIONIBUS. Ostiorumt autem et eorum tantepagmentorum in wdibus hwe sunt rationes, uti primum consti- tuantur quoa genere sintA futuret generat sunt enim thyromathona haec, Doricum, Ionicum, AttigurgesE. Horum symmetrim (Doriciz generis) conspici- untur his rationibus, uti corona summa quee supra antepagmentum superius imponeture veque librata° sit capitulis summis columnarum, qume in pronao fuerint. Lumen autem §hypetri constituatur sicuti, quie altitudo Eedis a pavi- mento ad lacunaria fuerit, dividatur in partes tres semis et ex eis duaell partes luminee OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOORWAYS OF EDIFICES AND THEIR DRESSINGS. The following are the proportions of the doorways and their dressings in edifices, it being first settled of what order they are to be, for the orders of doorways (eupoQAwrew) are Doric, Ionic, Atticurge. The design of the Doric order is arranged with such proportions, as that the top of the corona, which will be placed above the lintel, be on a level with the top of the capitals of the columns, which are in the pronaos. But let the aperture of the Hypethrum be so managed, that, whatever may be the height from the pavement of the edifice to the coffers, it be divided into three a Codex Harl 2767 and Codex Laudianus have " quod" a palpable error of the original copyist.-/3 Jocundus changed the order of these words and has "futura sunt."-l Jocundus has "genera autem snt."-- Barbaro's text has " thyromatwn."-e The Codex Harl ; 3859 has " adticurges," No. 2508 " atticurges."-Z These words " dorici generis," exist in no manuscript whatever; they were first introduced by Jocundus.-t In the printed text generally given " imponitur."-O Our codex has " liberata."-t Schneider has " hypaetri," and attributes the first introduction of the word " hypothyri," usually given in the printed editions instead of " hypetri," to Jocundus ; justly censuring him for the misapplication of that term, which signifies rather the sill in contradistinction to " hyperthyron."-See glossary at the end of this chapter.-& Sometimes " sic, uti."-c The generally received printed text has " lumini." * It is perhaps hardly necessary to remark, that the head- ings to the chapters are interpolations of the Editors and Commentators of Vitruvius--Sulpitius instead of " edium" has " sacrorum"-Jocundus " sacrarum vedium" and Galiani omits " et antepagmentorum"-The Codex Harleianus, No. 2508 has this heading " de proportionibus hostiorum in vedibus et eorum generibus ac simetriis. t Newton in his translation of Vitravius renders " ostia" by the English word portals, in order to distinguish between the moveable doors " fores" and the dressings " antepag- mienta :" this last word he considers to mean only the jaumbs or architrave of the door case : but as it is evidently intended here to describe the whole by a part, it is rendered by the word " dressings." I Vitruvius strictly adheres to the division, which he had previously laid down c, I: 1, iv: " E columnarum enim for- mationibus trium generum factoe sunt nominationes, Dorica, lonica, Corinthia." Alberti in his inestimable work " De re zedificatorih 1, vi : c, vii: classes the capitals under three heads, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, considering the Tuscan as a simplification of the Doric, and afterwards mentioning the composite, as it is in effect, as an enrichment of the Corinthian. In Serlio's Treatise, however, we have distinct mention of five orders of architecture-when this quintuple division first obtained it is difficult to determine, for, from the very decided manner in which Sebastiano mentions " le cinque maniere delle colonne," it is to be presumed, that he but followed the universally acknowledged arrangement. § Mr. Wilkins' version of these few words is thus " the space which is intended to be left open to the air," the remarks of this intelligent author upon this chapter elucidate many points, which had been obscured by the alterations and interpolations of the original text-In his note upon this passage, Mr. Wilkins observes " the printed copies read lumen autem hypothyri," but the MSS. read either " hypaetri, hipetri" for " hypothyri ;" meaning that part of the doorway, which was either hypaethral or exposed to the air. Schneider remarks " hypothyn" a new word, which was first coined by Jocundus, but which has no signification." Vitruvius uses the two expressions "' lumen hypaetri," and " lumen vulva- rum" clearly denoting different objects. See also note + p. 22. 11 Newton has a long note upon this passage, and, reasoning from the analogy derived from the Doors of the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli and the Doric Temple at Corn, he comes to the conclusion, frow what he considers, in common with almost all the commentators, to be the apparent unreasonableness of the present text, that there must be some error, and suggests that the original must have been "' duve s," or '" semis." TRANSLATION.
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